GOLDEN STAR RESOURCES LTD., 40-F filed on 3/29/2019
Annual Report (foreign private issuer)
v3.19.1
DOCUMENT AND ENTITY INFORMATION Document
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
shares
Document And Entity Information [Abstract]  
Entity Registrant Name GOLDEN STAR RESOURCES LTD.
Entity Central Index Key 0000903571
Document Type 40-F
Document Period End Date Dec. 31, 2018
Amendment Flag false
Entity Current Reporting Status Yes
Current Fiscal Year End Date --12-31
Document Fiscal Year Focus 2018
Document Fiscal Period Focus FY
Entity Emerging Growth Company false
Entity Common Stock, Shares Outstanding 108,819,009
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE (LOSS)/INCOME - USD ($)
$ in Thousands, shares in Millions
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
Profit or loss [abstract]    
Revenue $ 273,017 $ 315,497
Cost of sales excluding depreciation and amortization 223,729 226,482
Depreciation and amortization 33,939 31,792
Mine operating margin 15,349 57,223
Other expenses/(income)    
Exploration expense 2,959 1,871
General and administrative 16,428 25,090
Finance expense, net 18,072 8,485
Other income (3,603) (4,346)
Gain on fair value of financial instruments, net (6,786) (2,057)
Loss on conversion of 7% Convertible Debentures, net 0 165
(Loss)/income before tax (11,721) 28,015
Deferred income tax expense/(recovery) 12,350 (12,944)
Net (loss)/income and comprehensive (loss)/income (24,071) 40,959
Net (loss)/income attributable to non-controlling interest (5,948) 2,188
Net (loss)/income attributable to Golden Star shareholders $ (18,123) $ 38,771
Net (loss)/income per share attributable to Golden Star shareholders    
Basic (usd per share) $ (0.21) $ 0.52
Diluted (usd per share) $ (0.21) $ 0.48
Weighted average shares outstanding-basic (in shares) 84.3 74.7
Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted (in shares) 84.3 88.2
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE (LOSS)/INCOME (Parenthetical)
Dec. 31, 2018
Aug. 03, 2016
7% Convertible Debentures    
Disclosure of detailed information about borrowings [line items]    
Borrowings, interest rate 7.00% 7.00%
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS - USD ($)
$ in Thousands
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
CURRENT ASSETS    
Cash and cash equivalents $ 96,507 $ 27,787
Accounts receivable 3,213 3,428
Inventories 35,196 50,653
Prepaids and other 5,291 5,014
Total Current Assets 140,207 86,882
RESTRICTED CASH 6,545 6,505
MINING INTERESTS 270,640 254,058
DEFERRED TAX ASSETS 595 12,944
Total Assets 417,987 360,389
CURRENT LIABILITIES    
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities 78,484 94,623
Current portion of rehabilitation provisions 7,665 6,566
Current portion of deferred revenue 14,316 17,894
Current portion of long term debt 27,482 15,864
Current portion of other liability 6,410 13,498
Total Current Liabilities 134,357 148,445
REHABILITATION PROVISIONS 58,560 64,146
DEFERRED REVENUE 105,632 92,062
LONG TERM DEBT 73,224 79,741
DERIVATIVE LIABILITY 4,177 10,963
OTHER LIABILITY 0 6,786
Total Liabilities 375,950 402,143
SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY    
CONTRIBUTED SURPLUS 37,258 35,284
DEFICIT (831,283) (794,180)
Shareholders' equity attributable to Golden Star shareholders 114,010 24,271
NON-CONTROLLING INTEREST (71,973) (66,025)
Total Equity/(Deficit) 42,037 (41,754)
Total Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity 417,987 360,389
First preferred shares, without par value, unlimited shares authorized. No shares issued and outstanding    
SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY    
SHARE CAPITAL 0 0
Common shares, without par value, unlimited shares authorized    
SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY    
SHARE CAPITAL $ 908,035 $ 783,167
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (Parenthetical) - First preferred shares - shares
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
Disclosure of classes of share capital [line items]    
Number of shares issued (shares) 0 0
Number of shares outstanding (shares) 0 0
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - USD ($)
$ in Thousands
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
OPERATING ACTIVITIES:    
Net (loss)/income $ (24,071) $ 40,959
Reconciliation of net (loss)/income to net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities:    
Depreciation and amortization 33,975 31,823
Share-based compensation 1,278 12,554
Deferred income tax expense/(recovery) 12,350 (12,944)
Gain on fair value of 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative (6,786) (2,095)
Recognition of deferred revenue (13,738) (14,156)
Proceeds from Royal Gold stream 0 10,000
Reclamation expenditures (5,316) (5,992)
Other 11,925 2,475
Changes in working capital (17,172) (7,448)
Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities (7,555) 55,176
INVESTING ACTIVITIES:    
Additions to mining properties (677) (632)
Additions to plant and equipment (95) (649)
Additions to construction in progress (44,163) (67,591)
Proceeds from asset disposal 38 0
Change in accounts payable and deposits on mine equipment and material (3,014) 1,103
Increase in restricted cash (40) (41)
Net cash used in investing activities (47,951) (67,810)
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:    
Principal payments on debt (15,607) (2,198)
Proceeds from debt agreements 35,000 10,000
Debt repayment (20,000) (13,611)
Shares issued, net 124,772 24,456
Exercise of options 61 10
Net cash provided by financing activities 124,226 18,657
Increase in cash and cash equivalents 68,720 6,023
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period 27,787 21,764
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period 96,507 27,787
5% Convertible Debentures    
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:    
Principal payments on debt 0 0
Proceeds from debt agreements 0 0
Debt repayment 0 (13,611)
Royal Gold loan    
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:    
Principal payments on debt 0 0
Proceeds from debt agreements 0 0
Debt repayment $ (20,000) $ 0
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Parenthetical)
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
Aug. 03, 2016
5% Convertible Debentures      
Disclosure of detailed information about borrowings [line items]      
Borrowings, interest rate 5.00% 5.00%  
7% Convertible Debentures      
Disclosure of detailed information about borrowings [line items]      
Borrowings, interest rate 7.00%   7.00%
v3.19.1
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY
$ in Thousands
USD ($)
shares
Share Capital
Common shares
USD ($)
shares
Contributed Surplus
USD ($)
Deficit
USD ($)
Non-Controlling Interest
USD ($)
Balance at beginning of period (shares) at Dec. 31, 2016 | shares   67,071,290      
Balance at beginning of period at Dec. 31, 2016 $ (120,761) $ 746,542 $ 33,861 $ (832,951) $ (68,213)
Shares issued (see Note 13) (shares) | shares   8,161,900      
Shares issued (see Note 13) 35,682 $ 35,682      
Shares issued under DSUs (shares) | shares   233,539      
Shares issued under DSUs $ 0 $ 521 (521)    
Shares issued under options (shares) | shares 5,000 4,750      
Shares issued under options $ 10 $ 16 (6)    
Shares issued under warrants (see Note 13) (shares) | shares   644,736      
Shares issued under warrants (see Note 13)   $ 2,450      
Options granted net of forfeitures 1,229   1,229    
Deferred share units granted 387   387    
Performance and restricted share units granted 334   334    
Share issue costs (2,044) $ (2,044)      
Net (loss)/income 40,959     38,771 2,188
Balance at end of period (shares) at Dec. 31, 2017 | shares   76,116,215      
Balance at end of period at Dec. 31, 2017 (41,754) $ 783,167 35,284 (794,180) (66,025)
Stockholders' Equity, Including Portion Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest, Adjusted Balance1 (60,734) $ 783,167 35,284 (813,160) (66,025)
Impact of adopting IFRS 15 on January 1, 2018 (see Note 3) 0        
Shares issued (see Note 13) (shares) | shares   32,642,100      
Shares issued (see Note 13) 125,672 $ 125,672      
Shares issued under DSUs (shares) | shares   36,194      
Shares issued under DSUs $ (145) $ 20 (165)    
Shares issued under options (shares) | shares 25,000 24,500      
Shares issued under options $ 61 $ 77 (16)    
Shares issued under warrants (see Note 13) 2,450 2,450      
Options granted net of forfeitures 1,248   1,248    
Deferred share units granted 565   565    
Performance and restricted share units granted 342   342    
Share issue costs (901) $ (901)      
Net (loss)/income (24,071)     (18,123) (5,948)
Balance at end of period (shares) at Dec. 31, 2018 | shares   108,819,009      
Balance at end of period at Dec. 31, 2018 42,037 $ 908,035 $ 37,258 $ (831,283) $ (71,973)
Impact of adopting IFRS 15 on January 1, 2018 (see Note 3) $ 18,980        
v3.19.1
NATURE OF OPERATIONS
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Basis Of Consolidation [Abstract]  
NATURE OF OPERATIONS
1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS
Golden Star Resources Ltd. ("Golden Star" or "the Company" or "we" or "our") is a Canadian federally-incorporated, international gold mining and exploration company headquartered in Toronto, Canada. The Company's shares are listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (the "TSX") under the symbol GSC, the NYSE American (formerly NYSE MKT) under the symbol GSS and the Ghana Stock Exchange under the symbol GSR. The Company's registered office is located at 150 King Street West, Suite 1200, Toronto, Ontario, M5H 1J9, Canada.
Through our 90% owned subsidiary, Golden Star (Wassa) Limited, we own and operate the Wassa open-pit gold mine, the Wassa underground mine and a carbon-in-leach ("CIL") processing plant (collectively, "Wassa"), located northeast of the town of Tarkwa, Ghana. Through our 90% owned subsidiary Golden Star (Bogoso/Prestea) Limited, the Company owns and operates the Bogoso gold mining and processing operations, the Prestea open-pit mining operations and the Prestea underground mine ("Prestea") located near the town of Prestea, Ghana. We hold and manage interests in several gold exploration projects in Ghana and in Brazil.
v3.19.1
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Corporate Information And Statement Of IFRS Compliance [Abstract]  
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Statement of compliance
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB") and with interpretations of the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee ("IFRIC") which the Canadian Accounting Standards Board has approved for incorporation into Part 1 of the CPA Canada Handbook – Accounting.
These consolidated financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors of the Company on February 19, 2019.
Basis of presentation
These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries, whether owned directly or indirectly. The financial statements of the subsidiaries are prepared for the same period as the Company using consistent accounting policies for all periods presented, except for the changes in accounting policies described in Note 3 below. All inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated. Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Company. Non-controlling interests in the net assets of consolidated subsidiaries are a separate component of the Company's equity.
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and discharge of all liabilities in the normal course of business.
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for derivative financial instruments which are measured at fair value through profit or loss.
v3.19.1
SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
3. SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash includes cash deposits in any currency residing in chequing and sweep accounts. Cash equivalents consist of money market funds and other highly liquid investments purchased with maturities of three months or less. Investments with maturities greater than three months and up to one year are classified as short-term investments, while those with maturities in excess of one year are classified as long-term investments. Cash equivalents and short-term investments are stated at amortized cost, which typically approximates market value.
Inventories
Inventory classifications include "stockpiled ore," "in-process inventory," "finished goods inventory" and "materials and supplies". The stated value of all production inventories include direct production costs and attributable overhead and depreciation incurred to bring the materials to their current point in the processing cycle. General and administrative costs for corporate offices are not included in any inventories.
Stockpiled ore represents coarse ore that has been extracted from the mine and is stored for future processing. Stockpiled ore is measured by estimating the number of tonnes (via truck counts or by physical surveys) added to, or removed from the stockpile, the number of contained ounces (based on assay data) and estimated gold recovery percentage. Stockpiled ore value is based on the costs incurred (including depreciation and amortization) in bringing the ore to the stockpile. Costs are added to the stockpiled ore based on current mining costs per tonne and are removed at the average cost per tonne of ore in the stockpile.
In-process inventory represents material that is currently being treated in the processing plants to extract the contained gold and to transform it into a saleable product. The amount of gold in the in-process inventory is determined by assay and by measure of the quantities of the various gold-bearing materials in the recovery process. The in-process gold is valued at the average of the beginning inventory and the cost of material fed into the processing stream plus in-process conversion costs including applicable mine-site overheads, depreciation and amortization related to the processing facilities.
Finished goods inventory is saleable gold in the form of doré bars. Included in the costs are the direct costs of the mining and processing operations as well as direct mine-site overheads, amortization and depreciation.
Materials and supplies inventories consist mostly of equipment parts and other consumables required in the mining and ore processing activities.
All inventories are valued at the lower of average cost or net realizable value.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment assets, including machinery, processing equipment, mining equipment, mine site facilities, buildings, vehicles and expenditures that extend the life of such assets, are initially recorded at cost including acquisition and installation costs. Property, plant and equipment are subsequently measured at cost, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
The costs of self-constructed assets include direct construction costs and direct overhead during the construction phase. Indirect overhead costs are not included in the cost of self-constructed assets.
Depreciation for mobile equipment and other assets having estimated lives shorter than the estimated life of the ore reserves is calculated using the straight-line method at rates which depreciate the cost of the assets, less their anticipated residual values, if any, over their estimated useful lives. Mobile mining equipment is amortized over a five year life. Assets, such as processing plants, power generators and buildings, which have an estimated life equal to or greater than the estimated life of the ore reserves, are amortized over the life of the proven and probable reserves of the associated mining property using a units-of-production amortization method, less their anticipated residual values, if any. The net book value of property, plant and equipment assets is charged against income if the mine site is abandoned and it is determined that the assets cannot be economically transferred to another project or sold.
The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each reporting period end, and adjusted prospectively if appropriate.
Gains and losses on the disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount, and are recognized net in the consolidated statement of operations.
Mining properties
Mining property assets, including property acquisition costs, tailings storage facilities, mine-site development and drilling costs where proven and probable reserves have previously been established, pre-production waste stripping, condemnation drilling, roads, feasibility studies and wells are recorded at cost. The costs of self-constructed assets include direct construction costs, direct overhead costs and allocated interest during the construction phase. Indirect overhead costs are not included in the cost of self-constructed assets.
Mining property assets are amortized over the life of the proven and probable reserves to which they relate, using a units-of-production amortization method. At open pit mines the costs of removing overburden from an ore body in order to expose ore during its initial development period are capitalized.
Underground mine development costs
Underground mine development costs include development costs to build new shafts, drifts and ramps that will enable the Company to physically access ore underground. The time over which the Company will continue to incur these costs depends on the mine life. These underground development costs are capitalized as incurred. Capitalized underground development costs incurred to enable access to specific ore blocks or areas of the underground mine, and which only provide an economic benefit over the period of mining that ore block or area, are depreciated on a units-of-production basis, whereby the denominator is estimated ounces of gold in proven and probable reserves and the portion of resources within that ore block or area that is considered probable of economic extraction. If capitalized underground development costs provide an economic benefit over the entire mine life, the costs are depreciated on a units-of-production basis, whereby the denominator is the estimated ounces of gold in total accessible proven and probable reserves and the portion of resources that is considered probable of economic extraction.
Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized. Qualifying assets are assets that require a significant amount of time to prepare for their intended use, including projects that are in the exploration and evaluation, development or construction stages. Capitalized borrowing costs are considered an element of the cost of the qualifying asset which is determined based on gross expenditures incurred on an asset. Capitalization ceases when the asset is substantially complete or if active development is suspended or ceases. Where the funds used to finance a qualifying asset form part of general borrowings, the amount capitalized is calculated using a weighted average of rates applicable to the relevant borrowings during the period. Where funds borrowed are directly attributable to a qualifying asset, the amount capitalized represents the borrowing costs specific to those borrowings. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Impairment of long-lived assets
The Company assesses at each reporting period whether there is an indication that an asset or group of assets may be impaired. When impairment indicators exist, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset and compares it against the asset's carrying amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of its fair value less cost of disposal ("FVLCD") and the asset's value in use ("VIU"). If the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations.
In assessing VIU, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset not already reflected in the estimates of future cash flows. The cash flows are based on best estimates of expected future cash flows from the continued use of the asset and its eventual disposal.
FVLCD is best evidenced if obtained from an active market or binding sale agreement. Where neither exists, the fair value is based on the best estimates available to reflect the amount that could be received from an arm's length transaction.
Future cash flows are based on estimated quantities of gold and other recoverable metals, expected price of gold (considering current and historical prices, price trends and related factors), production levels and cash costs of production, capital and reclamation costs, all based on detailed engineered life-of-mine plans.
Numerous factors including, but not limited to, unexpected grade changes, gold recovery variances, shortages of equipment and consumables, and equipment failures could impact our ability to achieve forecasted production schedules from proven and probable reserves. Additionally, commodity prices, capital expenditure requirements and reclamation costs could differ from the assumptions used in the cash flow models used to assess impairment. The ability to achieve the estimated quantities of recoverable minerals from exploration stage mineral interests involves further risks in addition to those factors applicable to mineral interests where proven and probable reserves have been identified, due to the lower level of confidence that the identified mineralized material can ultimately be mined economically.
If an impairment loss reverses in a subsequent period, the carrying amount (post reversal) of the related asset is increased to the revised estimate of recoverable amount to the extent that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset previously. Reversals of impairment losses are recognized in the statement of operations in the period the reversals occur.
Material changes to any of the factors or assumptions discussed above could result in future asset impairments.
Rehabilitation provisions
The Company records a liability and corresponding asset for the present value of the estimated costs of legal and constructive obligations for future site reclamation and closure where the liability is probable and a reasonable estimate can be made of the obligation. The estimated present value of the obligation is reassessed on a periodic basis or when new material information becomes available. Increases or decreases to the obligation usually arise due to changes in legal or regulatory requirements, the extent of environmental remediation required, methods of reclamation, cost estimates, inflation rates, or discount rates. Changes to the provision for reclamation and remediation obligations related to operating mines, which are not the result of current production of inventory, are recorded with an offsetting change to the related asset. Changes to the provision for reclamation and remediation obligations related to suspended mine operations are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The present value is determined based on current market assessments of the time value of money using discount rates based on the risk-free rate maturing approximating the timing of expected expenditures to be incurred, and adjusted for country related risks. The periodic unwinding of the discount is recognized in the consolidated statement of operations as a finance expense.
Deferred revenue
Until December 31, 2017, deferred revenue consists of payments received by the Company for future delivery of payable gold under the terms of the Company’s Streaming Agreement. As deliveries were made, the Company recorded a portion of the deferred revenue as sales, on a unit of production basis over the volume of gold expected to be delivered during the term of the streaming arrangement. The amount by which the deferred revenue balance was reduced and recognized into revenue was based on a rate per ounce of gold delivered under the stream. This rate per ounce of gold delivered was based on the remaining deferred revenue balance divided by the ounces that are expected to be delivered under the Stream Arrangement over the life of the arrangement. This estimate is re-evaluated at each reporting period with any resulting changes in estimate reflected prospectively.
Prior to the adoption of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, the Streaming Agreement was recorded as a contract for the future delivery of gold ounces at the contracted price. The upfront payments were accounted for as prepayments of yet-to-be delivered ounces under the contract and were recorded as deferred revenue. The initial term of the contract is 40 years and the deposit bears no interest.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the requirements of IFRS 15. The Company elected to use the modified retrospective approach to initially adopt IFRS 15 which resulted in recognizing the cumulative effect of prior period amounts as an adjustment to the opening balance sheet through opening deficit on January 1, 2018.
From January 1, 2018, deferred revenue consists of: 1) initial cash payments received by the Company for future delivery of payable gold under the terms of the Company’s Streaming Agreement as defined in Note 11, Deferred Revenue, and 2) a significant financing component of the Company’s Streaming Agreement. Deferred revenue is increased as interest expense is recognized based on the implicit interest rate of the discounted cash flows arising from the expected delivery of ounces under the Company’s Streaming Agreement.
The amount by which the deferred revenue balance is reduced and recognized into revenue is based on a rate per ounce of gold delivered under the stream. This rate per ounce of gold delivered relating to the payments received by the Company is based on the remaining deferred revenue balance divided by the ounces that are expected to be delivered over the term of the Stream Agreement.
As the Company’s Streaming Agreement contains a variable component, IFRS 15 requires that the transaction price be updated and re-allocated on an ongoing basis. As a result, the deferred revenue recognized per ounce of gold delivered under the Streaming Agreement will require an adjustment each time there is a significant change in the underlying gold production profile of a mine. Should a change in the transaction price be necessary, a retroactive adjustment to revenue will be made in the period in which the change occurs, to reflect the updated production profile expected to be delivered under the Streaming Agreement.
Foreign currency transactions
The Company's presentation currency of its consolidated financial statements is the U.S. dollar, as is the functional currency of its operations. The functional currency of all consolidated subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar. All values are rounded to the nearest thousand, unless otherwise stated.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at period end exchange rates. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate at the date that the fair value was determined. Income and expense items are translated at the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. Exchange gains and losses resulting from the translation of these amounts are included in net loss, except those arising on the translation of equity investments at fair value through other comprehensive income that are recorded in other comprehensive income. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate in effect at the transaction date.
Income taxes
Income taxes comprise the provision for (or recovery of) taxes actually paid or payable (current taxes) and for deferred taxes.
Current taxes are based on taxable earnings in the year. Current tax is calculated using tax rates and laws that were enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date in the respective jurisdictions.
Current income tax assets and current income tax liabilities are only offset if a legally enforceable right exists to offset the amounts and the Company intends to settle on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed using enacted or substantially enacted income tax rates in effect when the temporary differences are expected to reverse. The effect on the deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the period of substantial enactment. The provision for or the recovery of deferred taxes is based on the changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities during the period.
The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable earnings will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilized.
Net income/(loss) per share
Basic income/(loss) per share of common stock is calculated by dividing income available to Golden Star's common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares issued and outstanding during the period. In periods with earnings, the calculation of diluted net income per common share uses the treasury stock method to compute the dilutive effects of stock options, warrants, convertible debentures and other potentially dilutive instruments. In periods of loss, diluted net loss per share is equal to basic income per share.
Revenue recognition
Until December 31, 2017, revenue from the sale of metal was recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have passed to the purchaser. This occurs when the amount of revenue could be measured reliably, the metal had been delivered, title has passed to the buyer and it was probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. Title and risk of ownership pass to the buyer on the day doré was shipped from the mine sites. On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the requirements of IFRS 15, where revenue from the sale of metal is recognized when the Company transfers control over to a customer. There was no impact to the accounting of revenue from the sale of doré on adoption of IFRS 15. All of our spot sales of gold are transported to a South African gold refiner who locates a buyer and arranges for sale of our gold on the same day that the gold is shipped from the mine site. The sales price is based on the London P.M. fix on the day of shipment.
Revenue recognition for the Company’s Streaming Agreement is disclosed in the accounting policy for deferred revenue.
Share-based compensation
Under the Company's Fourth Amended and Restated 1997 Stock Option Plan, common share options may be granted to executives, employees, consultants and non-employee directors. Compensation expense for such grants is recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss)/income, with a corresponding increase recorded in the contributed surplus account in the consolidated balance sheets. The expense is based on the fair value of the option at the time of grant, measured by reference to the fair value determined using a Black-Scholes valuation model, and is recognized over the vesting periods of the respective options on a graded basis. Consideration paid to the Company on exercise of options is credited to share capital.
Under the Company's Deferred Share Unit ("DSU") plan, DSUs may be granted to executive officers and directors. Compensation expense for such grants is recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss)/income with a corresponding increase recorded in the contributed surplus account in the consolidated balance sheets. The expense is based on the fair values at the time of grant and is recognized over the vesting periods of the respective DSUs. Upon exercise the Company's compensation committee may, at its discretion, issue cash, shares or a combination thereof.
Under the Company's Share Appreciation Rights ("SARs") plan allows SARs to be issued to executives, employees and directors. These awards are settled in cash on the exercise date equal to the Company's stock price less the strike price. Since these awards are settled in cash, the Company marks-to-market the associated expense for each award at the end of each reporting period using a Black-Scholes model. The Company accounts for these as liability awards and marks-to-market the fair value of the award until final settlement. 
Under the Company's Performance Share Units ("PSU") plan, PSUs may be granted to executives, employees and non-employee directors. Each PSU represents one notional common share that is redeemed for cash based on the value of a common share at the end of the three year performance period, to the extent performance and vesting criteria have been met. The PSUs vest at the end of a three year performance. The cash award is determined by multiplying the number of units by the performance adjusting factor, which ranges from 0% to 200%. The performance factor is determined by comparing the Company's share price performance to the share price performance of a peer group of companies as listed in the PSU plan. As the Company is required to settle these awards in cash, they are accounted for as liability awards with corresponding compensation expense recognized. Long term PSU liabilities are recognized on the balance sheet as Long Term Other Liability and the current portion is recorded as Other Liability.
Under the Company's 2017 performance and restricted share unit plan (the "2017 PRSU Plan"), performance share units ("2017 PSUs") and restricted share units ("2017 RSUs" and, together with the 2017 PSUs, the "Share Units") may be issued to any employee or officer of the Company or its designated affiliates. Share Units may be redeemed for: (i) common shares issued from treasury; (ii) common shares purchased in the secondary market; (iii) a cash payment; or (iv) a combination of (i), (ii) and (iii).
Each PRSU represents one notional common share that is redeemed for common shares or common shares plus cash subject to the consent of the Company based on the value of a common share at the end of the three year performance period, to the extent performance and vesting criteria have been met. The PRSUs vest at the end of a three year performance period. The award is determined by multiplying the number of Share Units by the performance adjustment factor, which ranges from 0% to 200%. The performance adjustment factor is determined by comparing the Company's share price performance to the share price performance of a peer group of companies as listed in the 2017 PRSU Plan. As the Company has a practice of settling these awards in common shares, they are accounted for as equity awards with corresponding compensation expense recognized.
Leases
Leases that transfer substantially all of the benefits and risks of ownership to the Company are recorded as finance leases and classified as property, plant and equipment with a corresponding amount recorded with current and long-term debt. All other leases are classified as operating leases under which leasing costs are expensed in the period incurred. The Company will adopt IFRS 16, which was issued in January 2016 and applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019. See Changes in accounting policies below.
Financial instruments
Until December 31, 2017, the Company recognized all financial assets initially at fair value and classifies them into one of the following three categories: fair value through profit or loss ("FVTPL"), available-for-sale ("AFS") or loans and receivables, as appropriate. The Company had not classified any of its financial assets as held to maturity.
From January 1, 2018, the Company recognizes all financial assets initially at fair value and classifies them into one of the following measurement categories: fair value through profit or loss (“FVTPL”), fair value through other comprehensive income (“FVOCI”) or amortized cost, as appropriate. On adoption of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, there was no accounting impact to the financial statements and there were no changes in the carrying values of any of the Company's financial assets.
The Company recognizes all financial liabilities initially at fair value and classifies them as either FVTPL or loans and borrowings, as appropriate. The Company has not classified any of its derivatives as hedging instruments in an effective hedge.
5% Convertible Debentures
The Company's 5% Convertible Debentures were considered financial instruments at FVTPL. The convertible debentures contained embedded derivatives that significantly modified the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract. The convertible debentures were recorded at fair value based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets when available, otherwise by valuing the embedded derivative conversion feature and the debt component separately. The conversion feature was valued using a Black-Scholes model and the value of the debt was determined based on the present value of the future cash flows. Changes in fair value were recorded in the consolidated statement of operations. Upfront costs and fees related to the convertible debentures were recognized in the statement of operations as incurred and not deferred. The Company's 5% Convertible Debentures were fully settled during the year ended December 31, 2017.
Warrants
The Company's warrants were considered financial instruments at FVTPL. Prior to the holder exercising the warrants in full in 2017, the holder of the warrants had an option to request a cashless exercise. As a result, the warrants were classified as financial liability instruments and were recorded at fair value at each reporting period end using a Black-Scholes model. Warrant pricing models required the input of certain assumptions including price volatility and expected life. All warrants were exercised during the year ended December 31, 2017.
Derivatives
From time to time the Company may utilize foreign exchange and commodity price derivatives to manage exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and gold prices, respectively. The Company does not employ derivative financial instruments for trading purposes or for speculative purposes. Derivative instruments are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in the consolidated statement of operations. The Company did not have any foreign exchange derivatives outstanding at December 31, 2018.
7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative
The Company's 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative is considered a financial instrument at FVTPL. The embedded derivative was recorded at fair value on the date of debt issuance. It is subsequently remeasured at fair value at each reporting date, and the changes in the fair value are recorded in the consolidated statement of operations. The fair value of the embedded derivative is determined using a convertible note valuation model, using assumptions based on market conditions existing at the reporting date.
Share capital
Common shares are classified as equity. Costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or share options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the gross proceeds.
Changes in accounting policies
The Company has adopted the following new and revised standards, effective January 1, 2018. These changes were made in accordance with the applicable transitional provisions.
IFRS 2 Share-based payments was amended to address (i) certain issues related to the accounting for cash settled awards, and (ii) the accounting for equity settled awards that include a "net settlement" feature in respect of employee withholding taxes effective for years beginning on or after January 1, 2018. There was no impact to the financial statements on adoption of this standard.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments was issued in July 2014 and includes (i) a third measurement category for financial assets - fair value through other comprehensive income; (ii) a single, forward-looking "expected loss" impairment model; and (iii) a mandatory effective date of annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018. On adoption of this standard, there was no accounting impact to the financial statements and there were no changes in the carrying values of any of the Company's financial assets.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers was amended to clarify how to (i) identify a performance obligation in a contract; (ii) determine whether a company is a principal or an agent; and (iii) determine whether the revenue from granting a license should be recognized at a point in time or over time. In addition to the clarifications, the amendments include two additional reliefs to reduce cost and complexity for a company when it first applies the new standard. The amendments have the same effective date as the standard, which is January 1, 2018. The impact of the initial adoption of IFRS 15 was $19.0 million. The adjustment was recorded as an increase to deferred revenue with a corresponding increase to opening deficit.
Standards, interpretations and amendments not yet effective
IFRS 16 Leases specifies how an IFRS reporter will recognize, measure, present and disclose leases. The standard provides a single lessee accounting model, requiring lessees to recognize assets and liabilities for all leases unless the lease term is 12 months or less or the underlying asset has a low value. Lessors continue to classify leases as operating or finance, with IFRS 16's approach to lessor accounting substantially unchanged from its predecessor, IAS 17. IFRS 16 was issued in January 2016 and applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019. The Company has completed an evaluation of the population of its contracts to ensure compliance with the new lease standard. The assessment has identified some contracts that will likely be capitalized under the new lease standard however the Company does not expect there to be a material impact on the financial statements upon adoption of IFRS 16 on January 1, 2019, which will be applied on a modified retrospective basis.
IFRIC 23 Uncertainty over income tax treatments clarifies how the recognition and measurement requirements of IAS 12, Income Taxes, are applied where there is uncertainty over income tax treatments effective for years beginning on or after January 1, 2019. There is not expected to be any accounting impact to the financial statements on adoption of this standard.
v3.19.1
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies, Changes In Accounting Estimates And Errors [Abstract]  
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS
4. CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS
Preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that can affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the accompanying disclosures. Estimates and assumptions are continuously evaluated and are based on management's historical experience and on other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. However, uncertainty about these judgments, estimates and assumptions could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods.
Inventory valuation
Inventories are recorded at the lower of average cost or net realizable value ("NRV"). The allocation of costs to ore in stockpiles and the determination of NRV involve the use of estimates. Stockpiled ore represents coarse ore that has been extracted from the mine and is stored for future processing. Stockpiled ore is measured using estimates such as the number of tonnes (via truck counts or by physical surveys) added to, or removed from the stockpile, the number of contained ounces (based on assay data) and estimated gold recovery percentage. Timing and recovery of stockpiled ore can vary significantly from the estimates.
The net realizable value of materials and supplies is recorded based on the expected usage of the inventory items, salvage value and condition of the inventory items, all of which are based on management estimates and judgments.
Mineral reserves and resources
Determining mineral reserves and resources is a complex process involving numerous variables and is based on a professional evaluation using accepted international standards for the assessment of mineral reserves. Estimation is a subjective process, and the accuracy of such estimates is a function of the quantity and quality of available data, the assumptions made and judgments used in engineering and geological interpretation. Mineral reserve estimation may vary as a result of changes in the price of gold, production costs, and with additional knowledge of the ore deposits and mining conditions.
Differences between management's assumptions including economic assumptions such as metal prices and market conditions could have a material effect in the future on the Company's results and financial position, particularly a change in the rate of depreciation and amortization of the related mining assets and the recognition of deferred revenue.
Units of production depreciation
The mineral properties and a large portion of the property, plant and equipment is depreciated/amortized using the units of production method over the expected operating life of the mine based on estimated recoverable ounces of gold, which are the prime determinants of the life of a mine. Estimated recoverable ounces of gold include proven and probable mineral reserves. Changes in the estimated mineral reserves and resources will result in changes to the depreciation charges over the remaining life of the operation. A decrease in the mineral reserves would increase depreciation and amortization expense and this could have a material impact on the operating results. The amortization base is updated on an annual basis based on the new mineral reserve and resource estimates.
Carrying value of assets and impairment charges
The Company undertakes a review of its assets at each reporting period to determine whether any indication of impairment exists. Where an indicator of impairment exists, a formal estimate of the recoverable amount of the asset or cash-generating unit ("CGU") is made, which is considered to be the higher of its FVLCD and VIU. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying value of the asset or CGU is higher than the recoverable amount. In undertaking this review, management of the Company is required to make significant estimates of, amongst other things, discount rates, future production and sale volumes, metal prices, reserves and resource quantities, future operating and capital costs and reclamation costs to the end of the mine's life. These estimates are subject to various risks and uncertainties, which may ultimately have an effect on the expected recoverability of the carrying values of the asset or CGU. In determining a CGU, management has examined the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of cash inflows from other assets or group of assets.
Rehabilitation provisions
Environmental reclamation and closure liabilities are recognized at the time of environmental disturbance, in amounts equal to the discounted value of expected future reclamation and closure costs. The estimated future cash costs of such liabilities are based primarily upon environmental and regulatory requirements of the various jurisdictions in which we operate as well as any other constructive obligations that exist. The liability represents management's best estimates of cash required to settle the liability, inflation, assumptions of risks associated with future cash flows and the applicable risk-free interest rates for discounting the future cash outflow. The liability is reassessed and remeasured at each reporting date.
Fair value of financial instruments, including embedded derivatives
Where the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the financial statements cannot be derived from active markets, their fair value is determined using valuation techniques including the discounted cash flow model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. The judgments include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments.
When measuring the fair value of an asset or liability, the Company uses observable market data to the greatest extent possible. Fair values are categorized into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:
Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices)
Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs)
Income taxes
We deal with uncertainties and judgments in the application of complex tax regulations in the various jurisdictions where our properties are located. The amount of taxes paid is dependent upon many factors, including negotiations with taxing authorities in the various jurisdictions and resolution of disputes arising from our international tax audits. We recognize potential liabilities and record tax liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues in our various tax jurisdictions based on our best estimate of additional taxes payable. We adjust these tax estimates in light of changing facts and circumstances, however, due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in payment that is materially different from our estimates of our tax liabilities. If our estimate of tax liability proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, an additional charge to expense would result. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be greater that the ultimate assessment, a tax benefit is recognized.
A deferred tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable earnings will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilized.
Deferred revenue
Significant judgment is required in determining the appropriate accounting for the Streaming Agreement that has been entered into. Management has determined that based on the agreements reached that it assumes significant business risk associated with the timing and amount of ounces of gold being delivered. As such, the deposits received have been recorded as deferred revenue liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue based on the percentage of ounces delivered in the period over the total estimated ounces to be delivered over the life of the Streaming Agreement.
Commencement of commercial production
Prior to the period when a mine has reached management’s intended operating levels, costs incurred as part of the development of the related mining property are capitalized and any gold sales during the development period are offset against the cost capitalized. The Company defines the commencement of commercial production as the date that a mine has achieved a consistent level of production. Depreciation/amortization of capitalized costs for mining properties begins when operating levels intended by management has been reached.
There are a number of factors the Company considers when determining if conditions exist for the commencement of commercial production of an operating mine. Management examines the following factors when making that judgement:
All major capital expenditures to bring the mine to the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management have been completed;
The completion of a reasonable period of testing of the mine properties;
The mine and/or mill has reached a pre-determined percentage of design capacity; and
The ability to sustain ongoing production of ore.
v3.19.1
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Financial Instruments [Abstract]  
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
5. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The following tables illustrate the classification of the Company's recurring fair value measurements for financial instruments within the fair value hierarchy and their carrying values and fair values as at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017:
 
 
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
Level
 
Carrying value
 
Fair value
 
Carrying value
 
Fair value
Financial Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fair value through profit or loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative
3
 
4,177

 
4,177

 
10,963

 
10,963


There were no non-recurring fair value measurements of financial instruments as at December 31, 2018.
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are:
Level 1 - Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3 - Inputs that are not based on observable market data.
The Company's policy is to recognize transfers into and transfers out of the fair value hierarchy levels as of the date of the event or change in circumstances that caused the transfer. During the year ended December 31, 2018, there were no transfers between the levels of the fair value hierarchy.
Gain on fair value of financial instruments in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss)/Income includes the following components:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Loss on fair value of 5% Convertible Debentures
$

 
$
317

Gain on fair value of warrants

 
(86
)
Gain on warrant exercise

 
(193
)
Gain on fair value of 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative
(6,786
)
 
(2,095
)
 
$
(6,786
)
 
$
(2,057
)

The valuation technique that is used to measure fair value is as follows:
7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative
The debt component of the 7% Convertible Debentures is recorded at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method, and the conversion feature is classified as an embedded derivative measured at fair value through profit or loss.
The embedded derivative was valued at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 using a convertible note valuation model. The significant inputs used in the convertible note valuation are as follows:
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Embedded derivative
 
 
 
Risk premium
5.0
%
 
7.9
%
Borrowing costs
10.0
%
 
15.0
%
Expected volatility
45.0
%
 
45.0
%
Remaining life (years)
2.6

 
3.6


The following table presents the changes in the 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative for the year ended December 31, 2018:
 
Fair value
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
10,963

Gain on fair value of 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative
(6,786
)
Balance at December 31, 2018
$
4,177


If the risk premium increases by 10%, the fair value of the 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative would decrease and the related gain in the Statement of Operations would increase by $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.
If the borrowing costs increases by 10%, the fair value of the 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative would decrease and the related gain in the Statement of Operations would increase by $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.
If the expected volatility increases by 10%, the fair value of the 7% Convertible Debentures embedded derivative would increase and the related gain in the Statement of Operations would decrease by $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.
v3.19.1
INVENTORIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Classes of current inventories [abstract]  
INVENTORIES
6. INVENTORIES
Inventories include the following components:
 
As of
 
As of
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Stockpiled ore
$
6,613

 
$
22,998

In-process ore
4,188

 
4,014

Materials and supplies
23,659

 
22,677

Finished goods
736

 
964

Total
$
35,196

 
$
50,653


The cost of inventories expensed for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $209.4 million and $209.2 million, respectively.
Net realizable value adjustments of $2.8 million was recorded for stockpiled ore during the year ended December 31, 2018 (year ended December 31, 2017 - $3.5 million).
During the year ended December 31, 2018, a total of $2.8 million materials and supplies inventories were written off at Wassa. These are primarily related to open-pit mining equipment, materials and supplies as open-pit mining at Wassa was terminated in the first quarter of 2018. There were no write offs in the prior period.
v3.19.1
MINING INTERESTS
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Property, plant and equipment [abstract]  
MINING INTERESTS
7. MINING INTERESTS
The following table shows the breakdown of the cost, accumulated depreciation and net book value of plant and equipment, mining properties and construction in progress:
 
Plant and equipment
 
Mining properties
 
Construction in progress
 
Total
Cost
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of December 31, 2016
461,438

 
746,657

 
131,409

 
1,339,504

Additions
649

 
632

 
63,072

 
64,353

Transfers
24,269

 
48,122

 
(72,391
)
 

Capitalized interest

 

 
5,285

 
5,285

Change in rehabilitation provision estimate

 
3,022

 

 
3,022

Disposals and other
(7,142
)
 

 
(452
)
 
(7,594
)
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
479,214

 
$
798,433

 
$
126,923

 
$
1,404,570

Additions
95

 
677

 
45,485

 
46,257

Transfers
16,516

 
127,902

 
(144,418
)
 

Capitalized interest

 

 
579

 
579

Change in rehabilitation provision estimate

 
3,218

 

 
3,218

Disposals and other
(17,065
)
 

 

 
(17,065
)
Balance at December 31, 2018
$
478,760

 
$
930,230

 
$
28,569

 
$
1,437,559

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accumulated depreciation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of December 31, 2016
431,698

 
692,789

 

 
1,124,487

Depreciation and amortization
12,385

 
20,431

 

 
32,816

Disposals and other
(6,791
)
 

 

 
(6,791
)
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
437,292

 
$
713,220

 
$

 
$
1,150,512

Depreciation and amortization
12,349

 
20,900

 

 
33,249

Disposals and other
(16,842
)
 

 

 
(16,842
)
Balance at December 31, 2018
$
432,799

 
$
734,120

 
$

 
$
1,166,919

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carrying amount
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
41,922

 
$
85,213

 
$
126,923

 
$
254,058

Balance at December 31, 2018
$
45,961

 
$
196,110

 
$
28,569

 
$
270,640


As at December 31, 2018, equipment under finance leases had net carrying amounts of $3.0 million (December 31, 2017 - $1.6 million). The total minimum lease payments are disclosed in Note 12 - Debt.
No depreciation is charged to construction in progress assets. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the general capitalization rate for borrowing costs was 7%. Commercial production was achieved February 1, 2018, therefore no capitalized interest was recorded since.
v3.19.1
INCOME TAXES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Incomes Taxes [Abstract]  
INCOME TAXES
8. INCOME TAXES
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the tax rates enacted or substantively enacted when the temporary differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are fully recognized when we conclude sufficient positive evidence exists to demonstrate that it is probable that a deferred tax asset will be realized. These factors included, but not limited to, (a) historic and expected future levels of taxable income; (b) tax plans that affect whether tax assets can be realized; and (c) the nature, amount and expected timing of reversal of taxable temporary differences. Levels of future income are affected by market price of gold, forecasted future costs of production and quantities of proven and probable gold reserves.  If these factors or other circumstances changes, the Company records an adjustment to the recognition of deferred tax asset to reflect the Company’s latest assessment of the amount of deferred tax asset that is probable to be realized.
Our net deferred tax assets at December 31, 2018 and 2017 include the following components:
 
 
As of
 
As of
 
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Deferred tax assets
 
 
 
 
Tax losses carried forward
 
$
10,322

 
$
17,773

Deductible temporary differences relating to provisions
 
5,995

 
4,821

Deferred tax liabilities
 
 
 
 
Mine property costs
 
15,723

 
9,650

Net deferred tax assets
 
$
594

 
$
12,944


The Company has recognized $0.6 million of net deferred tax assets as at December 31, 2018 following an assessment in the prior year of future profitability of the Company’s subsidiary Golden Star (Wassa) Limited and concluded the realization of the net deferred tax assets is probable.
The composition of our unrecognized deferred tax assets by tax jurisdiction is summarized as follows:
 
 
As of
 
As of
 
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Deductible temporary differences
 
 
 
 
Canada
 
$
8,844

 
$
12,755

Ghana
 
31,509

 
44,232

 
 
$
40,353

 
$
56,987

 
 
 
 
 
Tax losses
 
 
 
 
Canada
 
$
50,718

 
$
48,411

U.S.
 
175

 
311

Ghana
 
287,545

 
257,771

 
 
$
338,438

 
$
306,493

 
 
 
 
 
Total unrecognized deferred tax assets
 
 
 
 
Canada
 
$
59,562

 
$
61,166

U.S.
 
175

 
311

Ghana
 
319,054

 
302,003

 
 
$
378,791

 
$
363,480


The income tax expense/(recovery) includes the following components:
 
 
For the years ended
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
Current tax recovery
 
 
 
 
Current tax on net earnings
 
$
12,350

 
$

Deferred tax recovery
 
 
 
 
Recovery of previously unrecognized deferred tax assets
 

 
(12,944
)
Income tax expense/(recovery)
 
$
12,350

 
$
(12,944
)

A reconciliation of expected income tax on net (loss)/income before minority interest at statutory rates with the actual income tax expense/(recovery) is as follows:  
 
 
For the years ended
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
Net (loss)/income before tax
 
$
(11,721
)
 
$
28,015

Statutory tax rate
 
26.5
%
 
26.5
%
Tax benefit at statutory rate
 
$
(3,106
)
 
$
7,424

 
 
 
 
 
Foreign tax rates
 
(15,562
)
 
(10,629
)
Other
 
132

 
74

Non taxable/deductible items
 
(676
)
 
(20
)
Change in unrecognized deferred tax assets due to exchange rates
 
3,427

 
(1,180
)
Change in unrecognized deferred tax assets
 
28,135

 
(8,613
)
Deferred income tax expense/(recovery)
 
$
12,350

 
$
(12,944
)

 At December 31, 2018, the Company had a tax pool and loss carryovers expiring as follows:
 
 
Canada
 
Ghana
 
Other
2019
 
$

 
$
33,488

 
$

2020
 

 
109,841

 

2021
 

 
12,822

 


2026
 
8,115

 


 

2027
 
12,306

 
117,889

 

2028
 
11,106

 

 

2029
 
16,841

 

 

2030
 
15,052

 

 

2031
 
28,240

 

 

2032
 
13,670

 

 

2033
 
5,884

 

 
347

2034
 

 

 
364

2035
 
8,049

 

 
1

2036
 
13,123

 

 
120

2037
 
14,827

 


 


Indefinite
 
37,867

 
577,012

 

Total
 
$
185,080

 
$
851,052

 
$
832


$821.6 million of the Ghana tax pool is usable against taxable income generated at Prestea, with the remaining amount totaling $29.5 million usable against taxable income generated at Wassa.
v3.19.1
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND ACCRUED LIABILITIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Trade and other current payables [abstract]  
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND ACCRUED LIABILITIES
9. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND ACCRUED LIABILITIES
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities include the following components:
 
As of
 
As of
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Trade and other payables
$
42,947

 
$
44,048

Accrued liabilities
25,522

 
40,165

Payroll related liabilities
10,015

 
10,410

Total
$
78,484

 
$
94,623

v3.19.1
REHABILITATION PROVISIONS
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Disclosure of other provisions [abstract]  
REHABILITATION PROVISIONS
10. REHABILITATION PROVISIONS
At December 31, 2018, the total undiscounted amount of future cash needs for rehabilitation was estimated to be $73.5 million. A discount rate assumption of 2% and an inflation rate assumption of 2% were used to value the rehabilitation provisions. The changes in the carrying amount of the rehabilitation provisions are as follows:
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2017
Beginning balance
$
70,712

 
$
77,382

Accretion of rehabilitation provisions
691

 
1,245

Changes in estimates
138

 
(1,923
)
Cost of reclamation work performed
(5,316
)
 
(5,992
)
Balance at the end of the period
$
66,225

 
$
70,712

 
 
 
 
Current portion
$
7,665

 
$
6,566

Long term portion
58,560

 
64,146

Total
$
66,225

 
$
70,712


During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recorded an increase in estimate for Wassa of $1.0 million due to a revision in the timing of payments. At December 31, 2018, the rehabilitation provision for Wassa was $17.2 million (2017- $17.4 million). The Company expects the payments for reclamation to be incurred between 2019 and 2027.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recorded a decrease in estimate for Prestea of $0.8 million. The decrease is due to a $3.1 million reduction in expected reclamation costs relating to the refractory liability and a $2.3 million increase in the expected reclamation costs relating to the non-refractory operation. The reduction of $3.1 million was primarily a result of a reduction in water treatment liability from ongoing treatment and a negative water balance. The reduction was recorded as other income since the carrying value of the underlying refractory assets were $nil after suspension of its operation in 2015. At December 31, 2018, the rehabilitation provision for Prestea was $49.0 million (2017 - $53.3 million). The Company expects the payments for reclamation to be incurred between 2019 and 2028.
v3.19.1
DEFERRED REVENUE
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Disclosure Of Deferred Revenue [Abstract]  
DEFERRED REVENUE
11. DEFERRED REVENUE
On July 28, 2015, the Company through its subsidiary Caystar Finance Co. completed a $130 million gold purchase and sale agreement (“Streaming Agreement”) with RGLD, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Royal Gold, Inc. ("RGI"). This Streaming Agreement was subsequently amended on December 30, 2015 to provide an additional $15 million of streaming advance payment. The Streaming percentages were adjusted as follows to reflect the $15 million additional advance payment: From January 1, 2016, the Company will deliver 9.25% of gold production from Wassa and Prestea to RGLD at a cash purchase price of 20% of spot gold. From January 1, 2018, Golden Star will deliver 10.5% of gold production from Wassa and Prestea at a cash purchase price of 20% of spot gold until 240,000 ounces have been delivered. Thereafter, 5.5% of gold production from Wassa and Prestea at a cash purchase price of 30% of spot gold price will be delivered.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company sold 23,692 ounces of gold to RGLD. Revenue recognized on the ounces sold to RGLD during the year ended December 31, 2018 consisted of $6.0 million of cash payment proceeds and $13.7 million of deferred revenue recognized in the period (see Note 17). The Company has delivered a total of 78,461 ounces of gold to RGLD since the inception of the Streaming Agreement.
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Beginning balance
$
109,956

 
$
114,112

Impact of adopting IFRS 15 on January 1, 2018 (see Note 3)
18,980

 

Deposits received

 
10,000

Deferred revenue recognized
(13,738
)
 
(14,156
)
Interest on financing component of deferred revenue
4,750

 

Balance at the end of the period
$
119,948

 
$
109,956

 
 
 
 
Current portion
$
14,316

 
$
17,894

Long term portion
105,632

 
92,062

Total
$
119,948

 
$
109,956


During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized $10.6 million deferred revenue, $3.1 million amortization of financing component, and $4.8 million interest on financing component of deferred revenue. Had the Company not adopted IFRS 15, deferred revenue recognized for the year ended December 31, 2018 would have been $13.7 million and there would have been no amortization of financing component or interest on financing component of deferred revenue.
v3.19.1
DEBT
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Disclosure of detailed information about borrowings [abstract]  
DEBT
12. DEBT
The following table displays the components of our current and long term debt instruments:
 
As of
 
As of
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Current debt:
 
 
 
Equipment financing credit facility
$

 
$
147

Finance leases
1,151

 
1,229

Ecobank Loan III
5,555

 
2,222

Ecobank Loan IV
4,000

 

Vendor agreement
16,776

 
12,266

Total current debt
$
27,482

 
$
15,864

Long term debt:
 
 
 
Finance leases
$
532

 
$
269

Ecobank Loan III
14,380

 
7,337

Ecobank Loan IV
13,700

 

7% Convertible Debentures
44,612

 
42,515

Royal Gold loan

 
18,817

Vendor agreement

 
10,803

Total long term debt
$
73,224

 
$
79,741

 
 
 
 
Current portion
$
27,482

 
$
15,864

Long term portion
73,224

 
79,741

Total
$
100,706

 
$
95,605


Equipment financing credit facility
Bogoso/Prestea and Wassa maintained an equipment financing facility with Caterpillar Financial Services Corporation, with Golden Star as the guarantor of all amounts borrowed. The facility provided credit financing for mining equipment at a fixed interest rate of 6.5%. Amounts drawn under this facility were repayable over a period of two to five years. Each outstanding equipment loan was secured by the title of the specific equipment purchased with the loan until the loan was repaid in full.
Finance leases
The Company financed mining equipment at Wassa and Bogoso/Prestea through equipment financing leases. These finance leases are payable in equal installments over a period of 60 months and have implicit interest rates of 6.9%. Each outstanding finance lease is secured by the title of the specific equipment purchased with the lease until the lease has been repaid in full.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company entered into two financing lease agreements totaling $1.9 million for a period of 24 months.
Ecobank Loan III
On February 22, 2017, the Company through its subsidiary Golden Star (Wassa) Limited closed a $25 million secured Medium Term Loan Facility ("Ecobank Loan III") with Ecobank Ghana Limited. Ecobank Loan III has a term of 60 months from the date of initial drawdown and is secured by, among other things, Wassa's existing plant, and certain machinery and equipment having a specified value. The interest rate on the loan is three month LIBOR plus 8%, per annum, payable monthly in arrears beginning a month following the initial drawdown. Repayment of principal commences six months following the initial drawdown and is thereafter payable quarterly in arrears. The Company had twelve months to drawdown the loan.
On January 24, 2018, the Company drew down $15.0 million of the Ecobank Loan III. The full $25.0 million has been drawn as at December 31, 2018.
Ecobank Loan IV
On June 28, 2018, the Company through its subsidiary Golden Star (Wassa) Limited closed a $20.0 million secured loan facility ("Ecobank Loan IV") with Ecobank Ghana Limited and used the facility to repay in full the $20.0 million Royal Gold loan. The loan is secured by, among other things, Wassa's existing plant, and certain machinery and equipment having a specified value. There are no prepayment penalties associated with Ecobank Loan IV and the loan is repayable within 60 months of initial drawdown. Repayment of principal commenced September 2018 and is thereafter payable quarterly in arrears. Interest is payable monthly in arrears at an interest rate equal to three month LIBOR plus a spread of 7.5% per annum.
Royal Gold loan
In July 2015, the Company through its subsidiary Caystar Finance Co. closed a $20.0 million term loan with RGI and subsequently drew down $20.0 million of the facility. The loan has a term of 4 years and is secured by, among other things, assets of Wassa and Bogoso/Prestea. Interest is payable based on the average daily London Bullion Market Association ("LBMA") gold price multiplied by 62.5% divided by 10,000 to a maximum interest rate of 11.5% per annum. Interest payments are to be made on the last business day of each fiscal quarter, commencing in the quarter which the funding occurred. The fair value of the loan is determined net of initial valuation of the warrants issued to RGI and financing fees incurred. Commencing June 30, 2017, the excess cash flow provision came into effect. No excess cash flow repayments were made.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, the interest rate was approximately 8% with a total of $0.8 million paid during the year. On June 28, 2018, the Company used Ecobank Loan IV to repay in full the $20.0 million Royal Gold loan.
7% Convertible Debentures
The 7% Convertible Debentures were issued on August 3, 2016, in the amount of $65.0 million due August 15, 2021. The Company entered into exchange and purchase agreements with two holders of its 5% Convertible Debentures due June 1, 2017 to exchange $42.0 million principal amount of the outstanding 5% Convertible Debentures for an equal principal amount of 7% Convertible Debentures (the "Exchange"), with such principal amount being included in the issuance of the $65.0 million total aggregate principal amount of the 7% Convertible Debentures. The Company did not receive any cash proceeds from the Exchange. The 7% Convertible Debentures are governed by the terms of an indenture dated August 3, 2016, by and between the Company and The Bank of New York Mellon, as indenture trustee.
The 7% Convertible Debentures are senior unsecured obligations of the Company, bear interest at a rate of 7.0% per annum, payable semi-annually on February 1 and August 1 of each year, beginning on February 1, 2017, and will mature on August 15, 2021, unless earlier repurchased, redeemed or converted. Subject to earlier redemption or purchase, the 7% Convertible Debentures are convertible at any time until the close of business on the third business day immediately preceding August 15, 2021 at the option of the holder, and may be settled, at the Company's election, in cash, common shares of the Company, or a combination of cash and common shares based on an initial conversion rate. The initial conversion rate of the 7% Convertible Debentures, subject to adjustment, is approximately 222 common shares of the Company per $1,000 principal amount of 7% Convertible Debentures being converted, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $4.50 per common share. The initial conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events. If the 7% Convertible Debentures are converted before August 1, 2019, the Company will, in addition to the consideration payable with the conversion, be required to make a conversion make-whole payment in cash, common shares of the Company or a combination thereof, at the Company's election, equal to the present value of the remaining scheduled payments of interest that would have been made on the 7% Convertible Debentures converted had such debentures remained outstanding from the conversion date to August 1, 2019, subject to certain restrictions. The present value of the remaining scheduled interest payments will be computed using a discount rate equal to 2.0%.
Prior to August 15, 2019, the Company may not redeem the 7% Convertible Debentures except in the event of certain changes in applicable tax law. On or after August 15, 2019, the Company may redeem all or part of the outstanding 7% Convertible Debentures at the redemption price, only if the last reported sales price of the Company's common shares for 20 or more trading days in a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the trading day prior to the date the Company provides the notice of redemption to holders exceeds 130% of the conversion price in effect on each such trading day. The redemption price is equal to the sum of (1) 100% of the principal amount of the 7% Convertible Debentures to be redeemed, (2) any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date, and (3) a redemption make-whole payment, payable in cash, common shares of the Company or a combination thereof, at the Company's election, equal to the present value of the remaining scheduled payments of interest that would have been made on the 7% Convertible Debentures to be redeemed had such debentures remained outstanding from the redemption date to August 15, 2021 (excluding interest accrued to, but excluding, the redemption date, which is otherwise paid pursuant to the preceding clause (2)).
The conversion feature referred to above is an embedded derivative. The Company selected to bifurcate the conversion feature from the host instrument, thereby separating it from the debt component. The debt component is recorded at amortized cost, and the embedded derivative is accounted for at fair value. At August 3, 2016, the date of the debt issuance, the fair value of the embedded derivative was $12.3 million. At December 31, 2018, the fair value of the embedded derivative was $4.2 million (December 31, 2017 - $11.0 million). The revaluation gain of $6.8 million is recorded in the Statement of Operations (year ended December 31, 2017 - revaluation gain of $2.1 million). There were no conversions during the year (December 31, 2017 - gain on conversions of $2.1 million).
During the first quarter of 2017, a total of 1,889,110 shares were issued on conversion of $8.5 million principal amount of 7% Convertible Debentures. The Company recorded a net loss on conversions of $0.2 million. The Company also made make-whole interest payments of $1.4 million as a result of the conversions. There were no conversions during the rest of 2017. As at December 31, 2017, $51.5 million principal amount of 7% Convertible Debentures remained outstanding.
There were no conversions of the 7% Convertible Debentures during 2018, therefore, as at December 31, 2018, $51.5 million principal amount of 7% Convertible Debentures remains outstanding.
The changes in the carrying amount of the 7% Convertible Debentures are as follows:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Beginning balance
$
42,515

 
$
47,617

Conversions

 
(6,947
)
Accretion of 7% Convertible Debentures discount
2,097

 
1,845

Balance at the end of the period
$
44,612

 
$
42,515


Vendor agreement
On May 4, 2016, the Company entered into an agreement with a significant account creditor to settle $36.5 million of current liabilities. Under this agreement, the Company paid $12.0 million and deferred the payment of the remaining $24.5 million until January 2018, after which the outstanding balance will be repaid in equal installments over 24 months commencing on January 31, 2018. Interest of 7.5% will accrue and be payable beginning in January 2017. A $2.7 million gain was recognized in Other Income on remeasurement of the deferral during the second quarter of 2016.
Schedule of payments on outstanding debt as of December 31, 2018:
 
 
  Year ending December 31, 2019
 
Year ending December 31, 2020
 
Year ending December 31, 2021
 
Year ending December 31, 2022
 
Year ending December 31, 2023
 
Maturity
Finance leases
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
 
$
1,151

 
$
532

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
2020
Interest
 
94

 
8

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ecobank Loan III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
 
5,555

 
5,555

 
5,555

 
3,611

 

 
2022
Interest
 
1,739

 
1,189

 
632

 
101

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ecobank Loan IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
 
4,000

 
4,000

 
4,000

 
4,000

 
2,000

 
2023
Interest
 
1,645

 
1,250

 
847

 
448

 
74

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7% Convertible Debentures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
 

 

 
51,498

 

 

 
August 15, 2021
Interest
 
3,605

 
3,605

 
3,605

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vendor agreement
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
 
17,507

 

 

 

 

 
2019
Interest
 
1,072

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total principal
 
$
28,213

 
$
10,087

 
$
61,053

 
$
7,611

 
$
2,000

 
 
Total interest
 
8,155

 
6,052

 
5,084

 
549

 
74

 
 
 
 
$
36,368

 
$
16,139

 
$
66,137

 
$
8,160

 
$
2,074

 
 
v3.19.1
SHARE CAPITAL
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Share Capital, Reserves And Other Equity Interest [Abstract]  
SHARE CAPITAL
13. SHARE CAPITAL
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company consolidated the common shares of the Company on the basis of one post-consolidation common share for every five pre-consolidation common shares. The common shares of the Company began trading on a consolidation-adjusted basis on the TSX and the NYSE American when the markets opened on October 30, 2018.
All share data and equity-based compensation plans have been retroactively adjusted to give effect to the consolidation.
 
Note
 
Number of Common Shares
 
Share Capital
Balance at December 31, 2016
 
 
67,071,290

 
$
746,542

Bought deal
 
 
6,272,790

 
26,203

Conversion of 7% Convertible Debentures
 
 
1,889,110

 
9,479

Shares issued under DSUs
 
 
233,539

 
521

Shares issued under options
 
 
4,750

 
16

Shares issued under warrants
 
 
644,736

 
2,450

Share issue costs
 
 

 
(2,044
)
Balance at December 31, 2017
 
 
76,116,215

 
$
783,167

Private placement
a
 
32,642,100

 
125,672

Shares issued under DSUs
 
 
36,194

 
20

Shares issued under options
 
 
24,500

 
77

Share issue costs
 
 

 
(901
)
Balance at December 31, 2018
 
 
108,819,009

 
$
908,035

a.
On October 1, 2018, the Company completed a $125.7 million strategic investment with La Mancha Holding S.à r.l. ("La Mancha"), a Luxembourg-incorporated private gold investment company through a private placement. La Mancha was issued 32,642,100 Golden Star common shares, representing approximately 30% of the outstanding share capital (on a non-diluted basis) after giving effect to La Mancha's investment.
v3.19.1
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Commitments And Contingencies [Abstract]  
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
14. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Our commitments and contingencies include the following items:
Environmental bonding in Ghana
The Ghana Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") requires environmental compliance bonds that provide assurance for environmental remediation at our Bogoso/Prestea and Wassa mining operations. To meet this requirement the Company has environmental bonds totaling $9.6 million and $8.1 million for Wassa and Bogoso/Prestea respectively, with a commercial bank in Ghana. These bonds are guaranteed by Golden Star Resources Ltd. There is also a cross guarantee between Wassa and Bogoso/Prestea. The Company also held cash deposits of $3.5 million and $3.0 million for each operation, which are recorded as restricted cash on the consolidated balance sheets.
Government of Ghana's rights to increase its participation
Under Act 703, the Government of Ghana has the right to acquire a special share in our Ghanaian subsidiaries at any time for no consideration or such consideration as the Government of Ghana and such subsidiaries might agree, and a pre-emptive right to purchase all gold and other minerals produced by such subsidiaries. A special share carries no voting rights and does not participate in dividends, profits or assets. If the Government of Ghana acquires a special share, it may require the Company to redeem the special share at any time for no consideration or for consideration determined by the Company. To date, the Government of Ghana has not sought to exercise any of these rights at our properties.
Royalties
Government of Ghana
The Government of Ghana receives a royalty equal to 5% of mineral revenues earned by Bogoso/Prestea and Wassa.
Dunkwa Properties
As part of the acquisition of the Dunkwa properties in 2003, the Company agreed to pay the seller a net smelter return royalty on future gold production from the Mansiso and Asikuma properties. As per the acquisition agreement, there will be no royalty due on the first 200,000 ounces produced from Mampon which is located on the Asikuma property. The amount of the royalty is based on a sliding scale which ranges from 2% of net smelter return at gold prices at or below $300 per ounce and progressively increases to 3.5% for gold prices in excess of $400 per ounce. Since the ounces mined at Mampon were below the 200,000 ounces threshold, we are not required to pay a royalty on this property.
Operating leases and capital commitments
The Company is a party to certain contracts relating to operating leases, office rent and capital commitments. Future minimum payments under these agreements as at December 31, 2018 are as follows:
Less than 1 year
 
$
1,383

Between 1 and 5 years
 
183

More than 5 years
 

Total
 
$
1,566

v3.19.1
SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Share-Based Payment Arrangements [Abstract]  
SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION
15. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION
Share-based compensation expenses recognized in general and administrative expense in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss)/Income, are as follows:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Share options
$
1,248

 
$
1,229

Deferred share units
565

 
387

Share appreciation rights
(502
)
 
482

Performance share units
(33
)
 
10,456

 
$
1,278

 
$
12,554


Share options
On May 5, 2016, the Fourth Amended and Restated 1997 Stock Option Plan (the "Stock Option Plan") was approved by shareholders to (i) reserve an additional 2,000,000 common shares for the Stock Option Plan, thereby increasing the total number of common shares issuable from 5,000,000 common shares to 7,000,000 common shares under the Stock Option Plan; (ii) provide for the grant of "incentive stock options" (being stock options designated as "incentive stock options" in an option agreement and that are granted in accordance with the requirements of, and that conforms to the applicable provisions of, Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code); and (iii) to make such other changes to update the provisions of the Stock Option Plan in light of current best practices. Options granted are non-assignable and are exercisable for a period of ten years or such other period as is stipulated in a stock option agreement between Golden Star and the optionee. Under the Plan, we may grant options to employees, consultants and directors of the Company or its subsidiaries for up to 7,000,000 shares, of which 1,917,767 are available for grant as of December 31, 2018 (December 31, 2017 - 2,114,517). The exercise price of each option is not less than the closing price of our shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange on the day prior to the date of grant. Options typically vest over periods ranging from immediately to four years from the date of grant. Vesting periods are determined at the discretion of the Compensation Committee.
The fair value of option grants is estimated at the grant dates using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Fair values of options granted during the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were based on the weighted average assumptions noted in the following table:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Expected volatility
70.06%
 
73.70%
Risk-free interest rate
2.39%
 
1.86%
Expected lives
5.68 years
 
5.99 years

The weighted average fair value per option granted during the year ended December 31, 2018 was $2.82 CAD (year ended December 31, 2017 - $4.20 CAD). As at December 31, 2018, there was $0.6 million of share-based compensation expense (December 31, 2017 - $0.5 million) relating to the Company's share options to be recorded in future periods. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized an expense of $1.2 million (year ended December 31, 2017 - $1.2 million). 
A summary of option activity under the Company's Stock Option Plan during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 is as follows: 
 
Options
('000)
 
Weighted–
Average
Exercise
price ($CAD)
 
Weighted–
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term (Years)
Outstanding as of December 31, 2016
3,223

 
6.45

 
5.7
Granted
470

 
6.40

 
9.7
Exercised
(5
)
 
2.75

 
7.3
Forfeited
(128
)
 
11.35

 
1.8
Expired
(234
)
 
10.95

 
0
Outstanding as of December 31, 2017
3,326

 
5.93

 
5.9
Granted
642

 
4.61

 
9.2
Exercised
(25
)
 
3.24

 
1.6
Forfeited
(116
)
 
8.96

 
3.6
Expired
(329
)
 
9.35

 
0
Outstanding as of December 31, 2018
3,498

 
5.28

 
6.3
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exercisable as of December 31, 2017
2,536

 
6.30

 
5.1
Exercisable as of December 31, 2018
2,664

 
5.42

 
5.5

The number of options outstanding by strike price as of December 31, 2018 is shown in the following table:
 
 
Options outstanding