Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation The Consolidated Financial Statements include Libbey Inc. and its majority-owned subsidiaries (collectively, Libbey or the Company). Our fiscal year end is December 31st. The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from management’s estimates.
Revenue Recognition Our customer contracts generally include a single performance obligation, the shipment of specified products, and are recognized at a point in time when control of the product has transferred to the customer. Transfer of control primarily takes place when risk of loss transfers in accordance with applicable shipping terms. Revenue is recognized based on the consideration specified in a contract with the customer, and is measured as the amount of consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. When applicable, the transaction price includes estimates of variable consideration. We estimate provisions for rebates, customer incentives, allowances, returns and discounts based on the terms of the contracts, historical experience and anticipated customer purchases during the rebate period as sales occur. We continually evaluate the adequacy of these methods used, adjusting our estimates when the amount of consideration to which we expect to be entitled changes. Refund liabilities are included in accrued liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Our payment terms are based on customary business practices and can vary by region and customer type, but are generally 0-90 days. Since the term between invoicing and expected payment is less than a year, we do not adjust the transaction price for the effects of a financing component. Taxes collected from customers are excluded from revenues and credited directly to obligations to the appropriate governmental agencies. For contracts with a duration of less than one year, we follow an allowable practical expedient and expense contract acquisition costs when incurred. We do not have any costs to obtain or fulfill a contract that are capitalized under ASC Topic 340-40. For further disclosure on revenue see New Accounting Standards - Adopted below and note 18.
Cost of Sales Cost of sales includes cost to manufacture and/or purchase products, warehouse, shipping and delivery costs and other costs. Shipping and delivery costs associated with outbound freight after control of a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are included in cost of sales. In addition, reimbursement of certain pre-production costs is considered a development activity and is included in cost of sales.
Cash and Cash Equivalents We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original or remaining maturity of less than three months at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with various financial institutions.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts We record trade receivables when revenue is recorded in accordance with our revenue recognition policy and relieve accounts receivable when payments are received from customers. The allowance for doubtful accounts is established through charges to the provision for bad debts. We regularly evaluate the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts based on historical trends in collections and write-offs, our judgment as to the probability of collecting accounts and our evaluation of business risk. This evaluation is inherently subjective, as it requires estimates that are susceptible to revision as more information becomes available. Accounts are determined to be uncollectible when the debt is deemed to be worthless or only recoverable in part and are written off at that time through a charge against the allowance. Generally, we do not require collateral on our accounts receivable.
Inventory Valuation Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. The last-in, first-out (LIFO) method is used for our U.S. glass inventories, which represented 34.9 percent and 32.2 percent of our total inventories in 2018 and 2017, respectively. The remaining inventories are valued using either the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or average cost method. For those inventories valued on the LIFO method, the excess of FIFO cost over LIFO, was $15.9 million and $13.4 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively. Cost includes the cost of materials, direct labor, in-bound freight and the applicable share of manufacturing overhead.
Purchased Intangible Assets and Goodwill Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification™ ("FASB ASC") Topic 350 - "Intangibles-Goodwill and other" ("FASB ASC 350") requires goodwill and purchased indefinite life intangible assets to be reviewed for impairment annually, or more frequently if impairment indicators arise. Intangible assets with lives restricted by contractual, legal or other means will continue to be amortized over their useful lives. As of October 1st of each year, we update our separate impairment evaluations for both goodwill and indefinite life intangible assets. For further disclosure on goodwill and intangibles, see note 4.
Software We account for software in accordance with FASB ASC 350. Software represents the costs of internally developed and/or purchased software for internal use. Capitalized costs include software packages, installation and internal labor costs of employees devoted to the software development project. Costs incurred to modify existing software, providing significant enhancements and creating additional functionality are also capitalized. Once a project is complete, we estimate the useful life of the internal-use software, generally amortizing these costs over a five-year period.
Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally 3 to 14 years for equipment and furnishings and 10 to 40 years for buildings and improvements. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred.
Long-lived assets to be held and used are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Measurement of an impairment loss for long-lived assets that we expect to hold and use is based on the fair value of the asset. Long-lived assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. See note 5 for further disclosure.
Self-Insurance Reserves Self-insurance reserves reflect the estimated liability for group health and workers' compensation claims not covered by third-party insurance. We accrue estimated losses based on actuarial models and assumptions as well as our historical loss experience. Workers' compensation accruals are recorded at the estimated ultimate payout amounts based on individual case estimates. In addition, we record estimates of incurred-but-not-reported losses based on actuarial models.
Pension and Non-pension Post-retirement Benefits We account for pension and non-pension post-retirement benefits in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 715 - "Compensation-Retirement Benefits" ("FASB ASC 715"). FASB ASC 715 requires recognition of the over-funded or under-funded status of pension and other post-retirement benefit plans on the balance sheet. Under FASB ASC 715, gains and losses, prior service costs and credits and any remaining prior transaction amounts that have not yet been recognized through net periodic benefit cost are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax effect where appropriate. The service cost component of pension and post-retirement benefit costs is reported within income from operations while the non-service cost components of net benefit cost (interest costs, expected return on assets, amortization of prior service costs, settlement charges and other costs) are recorded in other income (expense).
The U.S. pension plans cover most hourly U.S.-based employees (excluding new hires at Shreveport after December 15, 2008 and at Toledo after September 30, 2010) and those salaried U.S.-based employees hired before January 1, 2006. Effective January 1, 2013, we ceased annual company contribution credits to the cash balance accounts in our Libbey U.S. Salaried Pension Plan and SERP. The non-U.S. pension plans cover the employees of our wholly-owned subsidiary in Mexico. For further discussion see note 8. We also provide certain post-retirement healthcare and life insurance benefits covering substantially all U.S. and Canadian salaried employees hired before January 1, 2004 and a majority of our union hourly employees (excluding employees hired at Shreveport after December 15, 2008 and at Toledo after September 30, 2010). Employees are generally eligible for benefits upon reaching a certain age and completion of a specified number of years of creditable service. Benefits for most hourly retirees are determined by collective bargaining. Under a cross-indemnity agreement, Owens-Illinois, Inc. assumed liability for the non-pension, post-retirement benefit of our retirees who had retired as of June 24, 1993. Therefore, the benefits related to these retirees are not included in our liability. For further discussion see note 9.
Income Taxes Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and tax attribute carry-forwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. A valuation allowance is recorded when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined separately for each tax paying component in which we conduct our operations or otherwise incur taxable income or losses.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and various foreign jurisdictions. Management judgment is required in evaluating our tax positions and determining our provision for income taxes. Throughout the course of business, there are numerous transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. When management believes uncertain tax positions may be challenged despite our belief that the tax return positions are supportable, we record unrecognized tax benefits as liabilities in accordance with the requirements of ASC 740. When our judgment with respect to these uncertain tax positions changes as a result of a change in facts and circumstances, such as the outcome of a tax audit, we adjust these liabilities through increases or decreases to the income tax provision. For further discussion see note 7. Derivatives We account for derivatives in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 815 "Derivatives and Hedging" ("FASB ASC 815"). We hold derivative financial instruments to hedge certain of our interest rate risks associated with long-term debt and commodity price risks associated with forecasted future natural gas requirements. These derivatives qualify for hedge accounting since the hedges are highly effective, and we have designated and documented contemporaneously the hedging relationships involving these derivative instruments. While we intend to continue to meet the conditions for hedge accounting, if we do not believe that forecasted transactions would occur, the changes in the fair value of the derivatives used as hedges would be reflected in earnings. Cash flows from hedges of debt, interest rate swaps and natural gas contracts are classified as operating activities. For further discussion see note 12.
Environmental In accordance with U.S. GAAP, we recognize environmental clean-up liabilities on an undiscounted basis when loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. The cost of the clean-up is estimated by financial and legal specialists based on current law. Such estimates are based primarily upon the estimated cost of investigation and remediation required, and the likelihood that, where applicable, other potentially responsible parties will not be able to fulfill their commitments at the sites where the Company may be jointly and severally liable.
Foreign Currency Translation Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries that operate in a local currency environment, where that local currency is the functional currency, are translated to U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, with the resulting translation adjustments directly recorded to a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss. Income and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the year. The effect of exchange rate changes on transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency is recorded in other income (expense). For further detail see note 16.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense We account for stock-based compensation expense in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, “Compensation — Stock Compensation,” ("FASB ASC 718") and FASB ASC Topic 505-50, “Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees” ("FASB ASC 505-50"). Stock-based compensation cost is measured based on the fair value of the equity instruments issued. FASB ASC 718 and 505-50 apply to all of our outstanding, unvested, stock-based payment awards.
Treasury Stock Treasury Stock purchases are recorded at cost. During 2018 and 2017, we did not purchase treasury stock. At December 31, 2018, we had 941,250 shares of common stock available for repurchase, as authorized by our Board of Directors.
Research and Development Research and development costs are charged to selling, general and administrative expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when incurred. Expenses for 2018 and 2017 were $3.6 million and $3.0 million, respectively.
Advertising Costs We expense all advertising costs as incurred. Expenses for 2018 and 2017 were $6.1 million and $5.3 million, respectively.
Computation of Earnings (Loss) Per Share of Common Stock Basic earnings (loss) per share of common stock is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share of common stock is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding plus the dilutive effects of equity-based compensation outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method.
Reclassifications In connection with our adoption of ASU 2017-07, certain pension and non-pension expense amounts in the prior year's financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the current year presentation. See New Accounting Standards - Adopted below.
New Accounting Standards - Adopted
Each change to U.S. GAAP is established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the form of an accounting standards update (ASU) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs not listed below were assessed and either were determined to be not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2014-09, Revenue From Contracts With Customers and all related amendments, also known as ASC Topic 606, using the modified retrospective method. There was no cumulative effect adjustment required as a result of initially applying the new standard to existing contracts at adoption on January 1, 2018, and we expect the impact of adopting the new standard to be immaterial to our Consolidated Statement of Operations on an ongoing basis. Additionally, there was no impact to our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The enhanced disclosure requirements are included in note 18, Revenue. Results for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, are presented under ASC Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our previous accounting under ASC Topic 605.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Post-retirement Benefit Cost. ASU 2017-07 improves the presentation of net periodic pension and post-retirement benefit costs. We retrospectively adopted the presentation requirement that the service cost component of pension and post-retirement benefit costs be reported within income from operations. The other components of net benefit cost (interest costs, expected return on assets, amortization of prior service costs, settlement charges and other costs) have been reclassified from cost of sales and selling, general and administrative expenses to other income (expense). On a prospective basis, only the service cost component will be capitalized in inventory or property, plant and equipment, when applicable. The effect of the retrospective presentation change related to the net periodic pension and non-pension benefit costs (credits) on our Consolidated Statement of Operations was as follows:
Year ended December 31, 2017
(dollars in thousands)
Cost of sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Other income (expense)
On January 1, 2018, we early adopted ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. ASU 2017-12 amended the hedge accounting rules to simplify the application of hedge accounting guidance and better portray the economic results of risk management activities in the financial statements. As of January 1, 2018, we recorded a $0.3 million reduction to our retained deficit and an increase in accumulated other comprehensive loss related to our natural gas swap contracts in Mexico that were previously not designated as hedging instruments. On a prospective basis, the change in fair value of these derivatives will be recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) rather than other income (expense) within the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Results and disclosures for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, are presented under the new guidance within ASU 2017-12, while prior period amounts and disclosures are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our previous accounting. See note 12, Derivatives, for further details and disclosures. On December 31, 2018, we early adopted ASU 2018-14, Compensation - Retirement Benefits - Defined Benefit Plans - General (Subtopic 715-20): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans. This update modifies the annual disclosure requirements for employers that sponsor defined benefit pension or other postretirement plans. ASU 2018-14 removes disclosures that are no longer deemed cost beneficial and adds the following disclosure requirements: 1) weighted-average interest crediting rates for cash balance plans; and 2) an explanation of the reasons for significant gains/losses related to changes in the benefit obligation during the period. The update also clarifies the requirements when entities aggregate disclosures for two or more plans. The new disclosure requirements were applied on a retrospective basis and are included in note 8, Pension, and note 9, Non-pension Post-retirement Benefits.
On December 31, 2018, we early adopted ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. This standard allows an optional reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Consequently, the stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act will be eliminated, resulting in the reporting of more useful information to financial statement users. ASU 2018-02 relates to only the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The underlying guidance requiring that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. ASU 2018-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. We elected not to reclassify the stranded tax effects related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The adoption did not have an impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
New Accounting Standards - Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires a lessee to recognize on the balance sheet right-of-use assets and corresponding liabilities for leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating leases, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The new guidance also clarifies the definition of a lease and disclosure requirements. ASU 2016-02 is effective for us in the first quarter of 2019. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees and lessors to apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. The modified retrospective approach does not require any transition accounting for leases that expired before the earliest comparative period presented. In the third quarter of 2018, the FASB approved an optional transition method permitting an entity to apply the transition provisions of ASU 2016-02 at its adoption date instead of at the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. Since this optional adoption method eases the transition burden, we plan to elect it and record a cumulative effect adjustment as of January 1, 2019, without restatement of the previously reported comparative periods. We anticipate recording additional assets and liabilities on the balance sheet similar to the amount of the total present value of our future undiscounted minimum operating lease payments as shown in note 15 of these Consolidated Financial Statements. Additionally, the adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations or cash flows. We have elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which among other things, permits us to carry forward our prior conclusions for lease identification and lease classification on existing contracts. We also made an accounting policy election to keep short-term leases off of the balance sheet for all classes of underlying assets. We continue to evaluate the related disclosures in the new lease guidance. We utilized a comprehensive approach to review our lease portfolio, selected a system for managing our leases, completed system implementation, updated our internal controls and conducted training on our new process.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This standard introduces a new approach to estimating credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables, and modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. We are currently assessing the impact that this standard will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred for internal-use software. The new guidance also prescribes the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow classification of the capitalized implementation costs and related amortization expense, and requires additional quantitative and qualitative disclosures. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. We are currently assessing the impact that this standard will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.