Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements of Libbey Inc. and its majority-owned subsidiaries (collectively, Libbey or the Company) have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Item 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three month and nine month periods ended September 30, 2018, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2018.
The balance sheet at December 31, 2017, has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The financial information included herein should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales includes cost to manufacture and/or purchase products, warehouse, shipping and delivery costs and other costs. Shipping and delivery costs associated with outbound freight after control of a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are included in cost of sales. In addition, reimbursement of certain pre-production costs is considered a development activity and is included in cost of sales.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense charged to the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations is as follows:
Three months ended September 30,
Nine months ended September 30,
(dollars in thousands)
Stock-based compensation expense
In connection with our adoption of ASU 2017-07, certain pension and non-pension expense amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. See New Accounting Standards - Adopted below.
New Accounting Standards - Adopted
Each change to U.S. GAAP is established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the form of an accounting standards update (ASU) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs not listed below were assessed and either were determined to be not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2014-09, Revenue From Contracts With Customers and all related amendments, also known as ASC Topic 606, using the modified retrospective method. There was no cumulative effect adjustment required as a result of initially applying the new standard to existing contracts at adoption on January 1, 2018, and we expect the impact of adopting the new standard to be immaterial to our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations on an ongoing basis. Additionally, there was no impact to our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The enhanced disclosure requirements are included in note 11, Revenue. Results for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, are presented under ASC Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our previous accounting under ASC Topic 605.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Post-retirement Benefit Cost. ASU 2017-07 improves the presentation of net periodic pension and post-retirement benefit costs. We retrospectively adopted the presentation that the service cost component of pension and post-retirement benefit costs be reported within income from operations. The other components of net benefit cost (interest costs, expected return on assets, amortization of prior service costs, settlement charges and other costs) have been reclassified from cost of sales and selling, general and administrative expenses to other income (expense). On a prospective basis, only the service cost component will be capitalized in inventory or property, plant and equipment, when applicable. The effect of the retrospective presentation change related to the net periodic pension and non-pension benefit costs (credits) on our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations was as follows:
Three months ended September 30, 2017
Nine months ended September 30, 2017
(dollars in thousands)
Cost of sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Other income (expense)
On January 1, 2018, we early adopted ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. ASU 2017-12 amended the hedge accounting rules to simplify the application of hedge accounting guidance and better portray the economic results of risk management activities in the financial statements. As of January 1, 2018, we recorded a $0.3 million reduction to our retained deficit and an increase in accumulated other comprehensive loss related to our natural gas swap contracts in Mexico that were previously not designated as hedging instruments. On a prospective basis, the change in fair value of these derivatives will be recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) rather than other income (expense) within the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. Results and disclosures for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, are presented under the new guidance within ASU 2017-12, while prior period amounts and disclosures are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our previous accounting. See note 8, Derivatives, for further details and disclosures.
New Accounting Standards - Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires a lessee to recognize on the balance sheet right-of-use assets and corresponding liabilities for leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating leases, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The new guidance also clarifies the definition of a lease and disclosure requirements. ASU 2016-02 is effective for us in the first quarter of 2019. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees and lessors to apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. The modified retrospective approach does not require any transition accounting for leases that expired before the earliest comparative period presented. In the third quarter of 2018, the FASB approved an optional transition method permitting an entity to apply the transition provisions of ASU 2016-02 at its adoption date instead of at the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. This would ease the transition burden and allow us to record a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of January 1, 2019, without restatement of the previously reported comparative periods. Therefore, this is our planned adoption method. We continue to evaluate the impact that the new lease guidance will have on our financial statements and related disclosures, including the additional assets and liabilities that will be recognized on the balance sheet. To facilitate this, we are utilizing a comprehensive approach to review our lease portfolio, have selected a system for managing our leases and are progressing through system implementation, updating of our internal controls and training. See note 15, Operating Leases, in our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, for our minimum lease commitments under non-cancellable operating leases.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This standard introduces a new approach to estimating credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables, and modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. We are currently assessing the impact that this standard will have on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. This standard allows an optional reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Consequently, the stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act will be eliminated, resulting in more useful information reported to financial statement users. ASU 2018-02 relates to only the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The underlying guidance requiring that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. ASU 2018-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. At this time, we do not plan to adopt this optional ASU.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14, Compensation - Retirement Benefits - Defined Benefit Plans - General (Subtopic 715-20): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans. This update modifies the annual disclosure requirements for employers that sponsor defined benefit pension or other postretirement plans. ASU 2018-14 removes disclosures that are no longer deemed cost beneficial and adds the following disclosure requirements: 1) weighted-average interest crediting rates for cash balance plans; and 2) an explanation of the reasons for significant gains/losses related to changes in the benefit obligation during the period. The update also clarifies the requirements when entities aggregate disclosures for two or more plans. ASU 2018-14 is effective for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2020, with early application permitted. The ASU provisions only impact annual disclosures and are to be applied on a retrospective basis to all periods presented. We are currently assessing the impact that this standard will have on our annual disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred for internal-use software. The new guidance also prescribes the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow classification of the capitalized implementation costs and related amortization expense, and requires additional quantitative and qualitative disclosures. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. We are currently assessing the impact that this standard will have on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.