Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements of Libbey Inc. and its majority-owned subsidiaries (collectively, Libbey or the Company) have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Item 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three month period ended March 31, 2019, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2019.
The balance sheet at December 31, 2018, has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The financial information included herein should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Software We account for software in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 350. Software represents the costs of internally developed and/or purchased software for internal use. Capitalized costs include software packages, installation and internal labor costs of employees devoted to the software development project. Costs incurred to modify existing software, providing significant enhancements and creating additional functionality are also capitalized. Once a project is complete, we estimate the useful life of the internal-use software, generally amortizing these costs over a 5 to 10 year period. Software is classified on the balance sheet in property, plant and equipment, and the related cash flows are shown as cash outflows from investing activities.
Cloud Computing Arrangements We account for implementation costs for software that we gain access to in hosted cloud computing arrangements in accordance with FASB ASC 350. Capitalized costs of hosted cloud computing arrangements include configuration, installation, other upfront costs and internal labor costs of employees devoted to the cloud computing software implementation project. Once a project is complete, amortization is computed using the straight-line method over the term of the associated hosting arrangement, generally 3 to 10 years. In connection with our adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2018-15 on January 1, 2019, these implementation costs are now classified on the balance sheet in prepaid and other current assets and other assets, and the related cash flows are presented as cash outflows from operations. Prior to January 1, 2019, implementation costs were included in property, plant and equipment, and the related cash flows were shown as cash outflows from investing activities. See New Accounting Standards - Adopted below. Our cloud computing arrangements primarily relate to our new global enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. At March 31, 2019, the net book value of these implementation costs included $0.3 million in prepaid and other current assets and $2.8 million in other assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. Amortization expense for the first quarter and accumulated amortization were both immaterial.
Leases We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. As of January 1, 2019, operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (ROU) assets, current operating lease liabilities and noncurrent operating lease liabilities in our balance sheet; related payments are included in operating activities on the statement of cash flows. We currently do not have any finance leases; but, if we do in the future, we will include them in property, plant and equipment, long-term debt due within one year and long-term debt within our balance sheet.
ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the estimated present value of lease payments over the lease term.
When our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate, which is derived from information available at the lease commencement date, in determining the present value of lease payments. We give consideration to our secured borrowing rates as well as publicly available data for instruments with similar characteristics when calculating our incremental borrowing rates.
The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease prepayments made before commencement or in advance of the payment due date. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Leases with a term of 12 months or less (short-term leases) are not recorded on the balance sheet. Our lease agreements do not contain any residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Variable lease costs represent the incremental change in lease payments associated with an indexed rate (i.e. Consumers Price Index), and these costs are not included in the lease liability on the balance sheet because they are unknown at commencement date.
We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components. Non-lease components for real estate leases relate primarily to common area maintenance, insurance, taxes and utilities associated with the properties. For real estate leases and a limited class of equipment leases, we account for the lease and non-lease components separately. Non-lease components are not recorded on the balance sheet as a ROU asset and lease liability and are not included in lease costs. For all other equipment leases, we account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
See New Accounting Standards - Adopted below for the adoption impact of this lease accounting standard.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense charged to the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations is as follows:
Three months ended March 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Stock-based compensation expense
New Accounting Standards - Adopted
Each change to U.S. GAAP is established by the FASB in the form of an ASU to the FASB’s ASC. We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs not listed below were assessed and either were determined to be not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires a lessee to recognize on the balance sheet ROU assets and corresponding liabilities for both finance and operating leases with lease terms greater than 12 months. On January 1, 2019, we adopted this standard using the optional transition method of applying the modified retrospective approach at our adoption date. Under this method, previously reported comparative periods prior to 2019 have not been restated. We have elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which allowed us to carry forward our prior conclusions on existing contracts for lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. In addition, for most of our classes of equipment leases, we elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components. We also made an accounting policy election to keep leases with a term of 12 months or less off of the balance sheet for all classes of underlying assets. At adoption, we had operating leases which resulted in us recognizing operating ROU assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet of approximately $69 million. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated results of operations or cash flows, and there was no cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings. The new standard also required additional disclosures which are included in note 13.
On January 1, 2019, we early adopted ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred for internal-use software. The new guidance also prescribes the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow classification of the capitalized implementation costs and related amortization expense, and requires additional quantitative and qualitative disclosures. Prior to January 1, 2019, implementation costs for cloud computing arrangements were capitalized into property, plant and equipment and amortized on a straight-line basis. Upon adoption of this new standard, we reclassed $2.8 million from construction in progress within property, plant, and equipment to other assets. When implementation projects are completed and amortization of capitalized costs begins, a portion is recorded in prepaids and other current assets. Results and disclosures for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019, are presented under the new guidance within ASU 2018-15, while prior period amounts and disclosures are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our previous accounting.
New Accounting Standards - Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This standard introduces a new approach to estimating credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables, and modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application permitted. Although we are still evaluating the impact of this standard, we believe it will not have a material impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.