Interim Financial Statements
Taubman Centers, Inc. (TCO) is a Michigan corporation that operates as a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (REIT). TCO's sole asset is an approximate 71% general partnership interest in The Taubman Realty Group Limited Partnership (TRG), which owns direct or indirect interests in all of our real estate properties. In this report, the terms “we", "us", and "our'" refer to TCO, TRG, and/or TRG's subsidiaries as the context may require. We own, manage, lease, acquire, dispose of, develop, and expand shopping centers and interests therein. Our owned portfolio as of March 31, 2019 included 23 urban and suburban shopping centers operating in 11 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, South Korea, and China. The Taubman Company LLC (the Manager) provides certain management and administrative services for us and for our U.S. properties.
The Consolidated Businesses consist of shopping centers and entities that are controlled, by ownership or contractual agreements, by TRG, the Manager, or Taubman Properties Asia LLC and its subsidiaries and affiliates (Taubman Asia). Shopping centers owned through joint ventures that are not controlled by us by over which we have significant influence (Unconsolidated Joint Ventures or UJVs) are accounted for under the equity method.
In May 2018, we entered into a redevelopment agreement for Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield. As of May 1, 2018, all operations at the center, as well as the building and improvements, were transferred to The Staenberg Group (TSG), and TSG leases the land from us through a long-term, participating ground lease. Both we and TSG have the ability to terminate the ground lease in the event that a redevelopment has not begun within five years, with the buildings and improvements reverting to us upon such a termination. We will defer recognition of a sale of the building and improvements and maintain the property on our Consolidated Balance Sheet until the foregoing termination right is no longer available to the parties, with this right ceasing upon TSG commencing a redevelopment. The shopping center has been excluded from our owned shopping center portfolio disclosure above.
The unaudited interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) necessary for a fair presentation of the financial statements for the interim periods have been made. The results of interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full year.
Dollar amounts presented in tables within the notes to the financial statements are stated in thousands, except share data or as otherwise noted.
The consolidated financial statements of TCO include all accounts of TCO, TRG, and our consolidated businesses, including the Manager and Taubman Asia. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated. The entities included in these consolidated financial statements are separate legal entities and maintain records and books of account separate from any other entity. However, inclusion of these separate entities in the consolidated financial statements does not mean that the assets and credit of each of these legal entities are available to satisfy the debts or other obligations of any other such legal entity included in the consolidated financial statements.
In determining the method of accounting for partially owned joint ventures, we evaluate the characteristics of associated entities and determine whether an entity is a variable interest entity (VIE), and, if so, determine whether we are the primary beneficiary by analyzing whether we have both the power to direct the entity's significant economic activities and the obligation to absorb potentially significant losses or receive potentially significant benefits. Significant judgments and assumptions inherent in this analysis include the nature of the entity's operations, the entity's financing and capital structure, and contractual relationship and terms, including consideration of governance and decision making rights. We consolidate a VIE when we have determined that we are the primary beneficiary. All of our consolidated joint ventures, including TRG, meet the definition and criteria as VIEs, as either we or an affiliate of ours is the primary beneficiary of each VIE.
TCO's sole asset is an approximate 71% general partnership interest in TRG and, consequently, substantially all of TCO's consolidated assets and liabilities are assets and liabilities of TRG. All of TCO's debt (Note 5) is an obligation of TRG or our consolidated subsidiaries. Note 5 also provides disclosure of guarantees provided by TRG to certain consolidated joint ventures and UJVs. Note 6 provides additional disclosures of the carrying balance of the noncontrolling interests in our consolidated joint ventures and other information, including a description of certain rights of the noncontrolling owners.
Investments in UJVs are accounted for under the equity method. We have evaluated our investments in UJVs under guidance for determining whether an entity is a VIE and have concluded that the ventures are not VIEs. Accordingly, we account for our interests in these entities under general accounting standards for investments in real estate ventures (including guidance for determining effective control of a limited partnership or similar entity). Our partners or other owners in these UJVs have substantive participating rights including approval rights over annual operating budgets, capital spending, financing, admission of new partners/members, or sale of the properties and we have concluded that the equity method of accounting is appropriate for these interests. Specifically, our 79% and 50.1% investments in Westfarms and International Plaza, respectively, are through general partnerships in which the other general partners have participating rights over annual operating budgets, capital spending, refinancing, or sale of the property. We provide our beneficial interest in certain financial information of our UJVs (Notes 4 and 5). This beneficial information is derived as our ownership interest in the investee multiplied by the specific financial statement item being presented. Investors are cautioned that deriving our beneficial interest in this manner may not accurately depict the legal and economic implications of holding a noncontrolling interest in the investee.
In addition to common stock, we had three classes of preferred stock outstanding (Series B, J, and K) as of March 31, 2019. Dividends on the 6.5% Series J Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (Series J Preferred Stock) and the 6.25% Series K Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (Series K Preferred Stock) are cumulative and are paid on the last business day of each calendar quarter. We own corresponding Series J and Series K Preferred Equity interests in TRG that entitle us to income and distributions (in the form of guaranteed payments) in amounts equal to the dividends payable on TCO's Series J and Series K Preferred Stock.
We are also obligated to issue to the noncontrolling partners of TRG, upon subscription, one share of Series B Non-Participating Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred Share) per each unit of limited partnership in TRG (TRG Unit). Each Series B Preferred Share entitles the holder to one vote per share on all matters submitted to our shareholders. The holders of Series B Preferred Shares, voting as a class, have the right to designate up to four nominees for election as directors of TCO. On all other matters on which the holders of common stock are entitled to vote, including the election of directors, the holders of Series B Preferred Shares will vote with the holders of common stock. The holders of Series B Preferred Shares are not entitled to dividends or earnings of TCO. The Series B Preferred Shares are convertible into common stock at a ratio of 14,000 shares of Series B Preferred Stock for one share of common stock.
Outstanding voting securities of TCO at March 31, 2019 consisted of 24,855,694 shares of Series B Preferred Stock and 61,161,539 shares of common stock.
At March 31, 2019, TRG’s equity included two classes of preferred equity (Series J and K) and the net equity of the TRG unitholders. Net income and distributions of TRG are allocable first to the preferred equity interests, and the remaining amounts to the general and limited partners in TRG in accordance with their percentage ownership. The Series J and Series K Preferred Equity are owned by TCO and are eliminated in consolidation.
TCO's ownership in TRG at March 31, 2019 consisted of a 71% managing general partnership interest, as well as the Series J and Series K Preferred Equity interests. Our average ownership percentage in TRG for both the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 was 71%. At March 31, 2019, TRG had 86,031,993 TRG Units outstanding, of which we owned 61,161,539 TRG Units. Disclosures about TRG Units outstanding exclude TRG Profits Units granted or other share-based grants for which TRG Units may eventually be issued (Note 8).
The remaining approximate 29% of TRG Units are owned by TRG's partners other than TCO, including Robert S. Taubman, William S. Taubman, Gayle Taubman Kalisman, and the A. Alfred Taubman Restated Revocable Trust (the Revocable Trust).
Disaggregation of Revenue
The nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of individual types of revenues may be affected differently by economic factors. Under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", we are required to disclose a disaggregation of our revenues derived from contracts from customers that considers economic differences between revenue types. The following table summarizes our disaggregation of consolidated revenues for this purpose.
Three Months Ended March 31
Expense recoveries (1)
Shopping center and other operational revenues (2)
Management, leasing, and development services
Total revenue from contracts with customers
Pursuant to our adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases", beginning January 1, 2019, expense recoveries has been combined with minimum rent on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) into Rental Revenues and is no longer required to be disaggregated.
Represents consolidated Other revenue reported on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) excluding lease cancellation income for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Pursuant to the adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases", beginning January 1, 2019, lease cancellation income is now presented in Rental Revenues on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Information about Contract Balances and Unsatisfied Performance Obligations
Contract assets exist when we have a right to payment for services rendered that remains conditional on factors other than the passage of time. Similarly, contract liabilities are incurred when customers prepay for services to be rendered. Certain revenue streams within shopping center and other operational revenues may give rise to contract assets and liabilities. However, these revenue streams are generally short-term in nature and the difference between revenue recognition and cash collection, although variable, does not differ significantly from period to period. As of March 31, 2019, we had an inconsequential amount of contract assets and liabilities.
The aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to our performance obligations that were unsatisfied, or partially unsatisfied, as of March 31, 2019 were inconsequential.
We have been undergoing a restructuring to reduce our workforce and reorganize various areas of the organization in response to the completion of another major development cycle and the current near-term challenges facing the U.S. retail industry. During the three months ended March 31, 2019, we incurred $0.6 million of expense related to our restructuring efforts. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recorded a change in estimate to previously recognized restructuring charges resulting in a reversal of expense of $0.3 million. These expenses and changes in estimates thereto have been separately classified as Restructuring Charge on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). As of March 31, 2019, $0.2 million of the restructuring costs recognized during 2018 and 2019 were unpaid and remained accrued.
Costs Associated with Shareholder Activism
During the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, we incurred $4.0 million and $3.5 million, respectively, of expense associated with activities related to shareholder activism, largely legal and advisory services. Also included in the activism costs is a retention program for certain employees. Given the uncertainties associated with shareholder activism and to ensure the retention of top talent in key positions within TCO, certain key employees were provided certain incentive benefits in the form of cash and/or equity retention awards. We and our Board of Directors believe these benefits are instrumental in ensuring the continued success of TCO during the retention period. Due to the unusual and infrequent nature of these expenses in our history, they have been separately classified as Costs Associated with Shareholder Activism on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Unvested incentive benefits under the retention awards as of March 31, 2019 were $0.6 million, which will be recognized as service is rendered through December 31, 2019.
Management’s Responsibility to Evaluate Our Ability to Continue as a Going Concern
When preparing financial statements for each annual and interim reporting period, management has the responsibility to evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. No such conditions or events were identified as of the issuance date of the financial statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Adoption of ASC Topic 842 ("Leases")
On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC Topic 842, "Leases". ASC Topic 842 addresses off-balance sheet financing related to operating leases and introduces a new lessee model that bring substantially all leases onto the balance sheet. We adopted ASC Topic 842, recognizing operating lease liabilities and related right-of-use assets for ground and office leases under which we are the lessee on our Consolidated Balance Sheet, as of the date of adoption. These lease liabilities and related right-of-use assets will amortize over the remaining life of the respective leases. We also began expensing certain indirect leasing costs, which were capitalizable under the previous lease accounting standard. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, we expensed $1.4 million of leasing costs under ASC Topic 842 that would have been capitalized under the previous accounting standard.
We implemented ASC Topic 842 using certain practical expedients. As a result of these elections, we did not reassess whether any existing contracts contained a lease, the lease classification of existing leases, or the initial direct costs of existing leases. In addition, in instances where we are the lessor, we elected to not separate non-lease components, most significantly certain common area maintenance recoveries, from the associated lease components. Due to this election, minimum rents and expense recoveries were combined into a single revenue line item, Rental Revenues, on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). We also elected the optional transition method to apply the provisions of ASC Topic 842 as of the adoption date, rather than the earliest period presented. As such, the requirements of ASC Topic 842 were not applied in the comparative periods presented in our consolidated financial statements.
In connection with the adoption of ASC Topic 842, lease cancellation payments from our tenants are now included in Rental Revenues on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) and recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining lease term, if any. Lease cancellation income is now presented in Rental Revenues on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Lease cancellation income was previously accounted for under ASC Topic 606 and presented in Other revenue on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Shopping center space is leased to tenants and certain anchors pursuant to lease agreements. Future rental revenues under operating leases in effect at March 31, 2019 for operating centers, assuming no new or renegotiated leases or option extensions on anchor agreements, is summarized as follows:
Certain shopping centers, as lessees, have ground and office leases expiring at various dates through the year 2105. As of March 31, 2019, these leases had an average remaining lease term of approximately 51 years. One center has an option to extend the term for three, 10-year periods and another center has the option to extend the lease term for one additional 10-year period. As of March 31, 2019, these extension options were not considered reasonably assured of being exercised and therefore were excluded from the respective lease terms for these centers. We also lease certain of our office facilities and certain equipment. Office facility and equipment leases expire at various dates through the year 2022.
In order to determine the operating lease liabilities and related right-of-use assets for ground and office leases under which we are the lessee, we utilized a synthetic corporate yield curve to determine an incremental borrowing rate for each of our leases. Significant judgment was required to develop the yield curve, which utilized certain peer and market observations. As of March 31, 2019, the weighted average discount rate for operating leases reported on our Consolidated Balance Sheet was 6.2%. In instances where variable consideration not dependent upon an index or rate existed, such future payments were excluded from the determination of the related operating lease liability and right-of-use asset.
For leases existing as of the adoption date of ASC Topic 842, rent expense is recognized on a straight-line basis. Rental expense under operating leases was $4.2 million for both the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018. There was no contingent rent expense under operating leases for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018. Payables representing straight-line rent adjustments under lease agreements were $64.8 million as of December 31, 2018. These amounts are now presented within Operating Lease Liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheet upon adoption of ASC Topic 842.
The following is a schedule of future minimum rental payments required under operating leases:
We own the retail space subject to a long-term participating lease at City Creek Center, a mixed-use property in Salt Lake City, Utah. City Creek Reserve, Inc. (CCRI), an affiliate of the LDS Church is the participating lessor. We own 100% of the leasehold interest in the retail buildings and property. CCRI has an option to purchase our interest at fair value at various points in time over the term of the lease. In addition to the minimum rent included in the table above, we may pay contingent rent based on the performance of the center.
International Market Place, a shopping center located in Waikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii, is subject to a long-term participating ground lease. In addition to minimum rent included in the table above, we may pay contingent rent based on the performance of the center.
Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Tenant Revenues
In connection with the adoption of ASC Topic 842, we now review the collectibility of both billed and accrued charges under our tenant leases each quarter taking into consideration the tenant’s historical payment status, credit profile, and known issues related to tenant operations. For any tenant receivable balances thought to be uncollectible, we now record an offset for uncollectible tenant revenues directly to Rental Revenues on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Uncollectible tenant revenues were previously reported as bad debt expense in Other Operating expense on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Our allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2018 was $10.4 million.
As a result of the above change in evaluation in uncollectible tenant revenues, the allowance for doubtful accounts was written off and an entry was recorded as of January 1, 2019 to adjust the receivables and equity balances of our Consolidated Businesses and Unconsolidated Joint Ventures. This resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment increasing Dividends in Excess of Net Income by $3.2 million and Non-redeemable Noncontrolling Interest by $1.8 million on our Consolidated Balance Sheet with offsetting increases in Accounts and Notes Receivable, Investment in Unconsolidated Joint Ventures, and Distributions in Excess of Investments In and Net Income of Unconsolidated Joint Ventures balances on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.