|Interim Financial Statements
||Interim Financial Statements
Taubman Centers, Inc. (TCO) is a Michigan corporation that operates as a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (REIT). TCO's sole asset is an approximate 70% general partnership interest in The Taubman Realty Group Limited Partnership (TRG), which owns direct or indirect interests in all of our real estate properties. In this report, the terms “we", "us", and "our'" refer to TCO, TRG, and/or TRG's subsidiaries as the context may require. We own, manage, lease, acquire, dispose of, develop, and expand retail shopping centers and interests therein. Our owned portfolio as of September 30, 2020 included 24 urban and suburban shopping centers operating in 11 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, South Korea, and China. The Taubman Company LLC (the Manager) provides certain management and administrative services for us and for our U.S. properties. In October 2020, we disposed of our ownership interest in Stamford Town Center, one of our two shopping centers in the state of Connecticut, and opened Starfield Anseong, a newly developed shopping center in Anseong, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea (Note 2).
The Consolidated Businesses consist of shopping centers and entities that are controlled, through ownership or contractual agreements, by TRG, the Manager, or Taubman Properties Asia LLC and its subsidiaries and affiliates (Taubman Asia). Shopping centers owned through joint ventures that are not controlled by us but over which we have significant influence (UJVs) are accounted for under the equity method.
The unaudited interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) necessary for a fair presentation of the financial statements for the interim periods have been made. The results of interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full year.
Dollar amounts presented in tables within the notes to the financial statements are stated in thousands, except per share data or as otherwise noted.
Risks and Uncertainties Related to COVID-19 Pandemic
The operations of both our U.S. and Asia shopping centers have been and could continue to be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has had and continues to have adverse effects on our business, financial statements, and liquidity including, but not limited to, the following:
reduced global economic activity has impacted certain of our tenants' businesses, financial performance, and liquidity and has caused, and could continue to cause, certain tenants to be unable to fully meet their obligations to us or to otherwise seek modifications of such obligations, resulting in increases in uncollectible tenant receivables, deferrals, and abatements;
the negative financial impact could affect our future compliance with financial covenants of our $1.1 billion primary unsecured revolving line of credit, unsecured term loans, and other debt agreements and our ability to fund debt service. In August 2020, we entered into amendments to waive all of our existing financial covenants related to our primary unsecured revolving line of credit, $275 million unsecured term loan, and $250 million unsecured term loan for the quarter ending September 30, 2020 through and including the quarter ending June 30, 2021. The financial covenants for our loan on International Market Place mirror the requirements under our primary unsecured revolving line of credit so therefore, the waiver of our financial covenants also applies to the International Market Place loan (Note 5); and
weaker economic conditions could result in lower fair values of assets and cause us to recognize impairment charges for our consolidated centers or other than temporary impairment of our Investments in UJVs. See Note 4 for the additional impairment recognized during the three months ended September 30, 2020 for the sale of Stamford Town Center.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily closed most of our U.S. shopping centers in mid-March 2020. As of June 30, 2020, all U.S. properties and nearly 85% of stores had reopened with restrictions in place to ensure compliance with all local, state, and federal laws and mandates to help ensure the health and safety of communities we serve. However, in mid-July 2020, two of our centers in California were ordered to temporarily close again amid rising cases of COVID-19. In late August, International Market Place in Hawaii was also ordered to temporarily close, but reopened in late September. In early September and October, our two centers in California reopened and currently all of our U.S. centers remain open. As of November 2, 2020, nearly 94% of our U.S. tenants had reopened with traffic, sales and tenant collections improving each month since May. If the U.S. continues to see prolonged or increased cases of COVID-19 infection, the risk of government mandated restrictions may rise, which could require centers to close.
The closures of our U.S. shopping centers adversely impacted mall tenant sales during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020. As a result, Rental Revenues on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) was adversely affected, primarily due to an increase in uncollectible tenant revenues for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020. We assess collectibility of receivables on a tenant by tenant basis in accordance with ASC 842 (see "Changes in Accounting Policies - Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Tenant Revenues"). Uncollectible tenant revenues are an estimate based on our assessment of revenues billed that may not result in collection, however we will continue our efforts to collect past due amounts. As such, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our uncollectible tenant revenues in the future cannot be predicted at this point in time. The closures of our U.S. shopping centers also have adversely impacted parking revenue and food and beverage revenue of our restaurant joint venture, which has adversely affected Other Revenue on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.
In relation to cash collections and our increased accounts receivable balance as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have received requests from many tenants for rent abatement and rent deferral. A substantial amount of our rental revenue receivables for April 2020 through October 2020 currently remain outstanding and are under negotiation, including those that have been deemed uncollectible and written off, with negotiations expected to continue through the end of the year and into 2021, resulting in an increase in Accounts and Notes Receivable on our Consolidated Balance Sheet. As of September 30, 2020, the Accounts and Notes Receivable balance on our Consolidated Balance Sheet was $172.5 million, compared to $95.4 million as of December 31, 2019. As a result of the progressive increase in collections and execution of rent deferrals and abatements, during the three months ended September 30, 2020, the Accounts and Notes Receivable balance on our Consolidated Balance Sheet did not increase significantly. As of September 30, 2020, we had executed deferral and/or abatement agreements with less than a majority of U.S. leases. We have made certain accounting policy elections for rent deferrals and abatements negotiated with tenants as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic (Note 14). As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the timing of the general economy's stabilization and recovery, collections and rent relief requests to-date may not be indicative of collections or requests in any future period. As such, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our rental revenues, cash provided by operating activities, and accounts receivable in the future cannot be predicted at this point in time.
In Asia, our three operating centers experienced varying levels of disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CityOn.Xi'an was closed for about a month in February, CityOn.Zhengzhou was closed for 10 days in February, and Starfield Hanam never closed. The closures of our Asia centers only adversely impacted the operations and financial results of the centers for the three months ended March 31, 2020, though our share of the impact was limited due to our partial ownership interests in the centers (Note 2).
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to adversely impact our operations, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity in the future, and those of our tenants and anchors, will depend on future actions and outcomes, which remain highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including (1) the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact, as well as the general economy's stabilization and recovery, (2) the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and (3) the direct and indirect economic and financial market effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.
Except as referred to or implied herein, we are not presently aware of any events or circumstances arising from the COVID-19 pandemic that would require us to update our current estimates, assumptions, or the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Our estimates may change, however, as new events occur and additional information is obtained, and any such changes will be recognized in the consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
On February 9, 2020, TCO and TRG (the Taubman Parties) entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the Merger Agreement) for Simon Property Group, Inc. (Simon) to acquire a 100% ownership interest in TCO and an 80% ownership interest in TRG. Under the Merger Agreement, Simon, through its operating partnership, Simon Property Group, L.P. (the Simon Operating Partnership), would acquire all of TCO’s common stock (other than certain shares of excluded common stock) for $52.50 per share in cash and certain members of the Taubman Family (including Robert S. Taubman, William S. Taubman, Gayle Taubman Kalisman, and the Estate of A. Alfred Taubman) would retain certain of their TRG interests so that they remain a 20% partner in TRG and would sell their remaining ownership interest in TRG for $52.50 per share in cash. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, we incurred costs of $17.1 million and $32.5 million related to the transaction, respectively, which have been separately classified as Simon Property Group, Inc. Transaction Costs on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). For additional information regarding the Merger Agreement, see our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which are available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov; provided, that the content of such website is not incorporated herein by reference.
On June 10, 2020, Simon delivered to the Taubman Parties a notice purporting to terminate the Merger Agreement (the Purported Termination Notice). In the Purported Termination Notice, Simon claimed that the Taubman Parties had suffered a Material Adverse Effect (as defined in the Merger Agreement) and had also breached their covenant to use commercially reasonable efforts to operate in the ordinary course of business. The Taubman Parties believe that Simon's purported termination of the Merger Agreement is invalid and without merit, and that Simon continues to be bound to the transaction in all respects. The Taubman Parties intend to hold Simon to its obligations under the Merger Agreement and the agreed transaction and to vigorously contest Simon's purported termination and legal claims. The Taubman Parties also intend to pursue their remedies to enforce their contractual rights under the Merger Agreement, including, among other things, the right to specific performance and the right to monetary damages, including damages based on the transaction price.
Also on June 10, 2020, Simon and the Simon Operating Partnership filed a complaint (the Simon Complaint), captioned, Simon Property Group, Inc. and Simon Property Group, L.P. v. Taubman Centers, Inc. and Taubman Realty Group, L.P., Case No. 2020-181675-CB, in the State of Michigan Circuit Court for the Sixth Judicial Circuit (Oakland County) (the Court), seeking a declaratory judgment that, among other things, the Taubman Parties had suffered a Material Adverse Effect and had breached their covenant in the Merger Agreement to use commercially reasonable efforts to operate in the ordinary course of business, and, as a result, Simon’s purported termination of the Merger Agreement was valid. On June 17, 2020, the Taubman Parties filed an Answer, Affirmative Defenses, and Counterclaim (the Taubman Answer and Counterclaim) in response to the Simon Complaint, which added Silver Merger Sub 1, LLC and Silver Merger Sub 2, LLC (with Simon and the Simon Operating Partnership, the Simon Parties) as counterclaim defendants. In the Taubman Answer and Counterclaim, the Taubman Parties deny that the Taubman Parties had suffered a Material Adverse Effect or that they had breached their covenant to use commercially reasonable efforts to operate in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practices, and, therefore, the Merger Agreement could not be terminated by the Simon Parties. Additionally, in the Taubman Answer and Counterclaim, the Taubman Parties ask the Court to enter a judgment of specific performance, compelling the Simon Parties to comply with their obligations under the Merger Agreement and consummate the transaction. Additionally, the Taubman Parties seek a declaratory judgment that, due to the Simon Parties' repudiation and material breach of the Merger Agreement by delivering the Purported Termination Notice and failing to use reasonable best efforts to consummate the transaction, the Taubman Parties have the right to seek damages, including based on the loss of the premium offered to the Taubman Parties’ equity holders. See Note 9 for more information regarding the ongoing litigation.
On June 25, 2020, we held a special meeting of shareholders, at which shareholders approved and adopted the Merger Agreement. Approximately 99.7% of the shares voted were in favor of the Merger Agreement and the transaction, which constitutes approximately 84.7% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote. The shareholder approval satisfied the final condition precedent to the closing of the transaction (other than those conditions that by their nature are to be satisfied at closing or by Simon). Simon, however, did not consummate the transaction on June 30, 2020, despite their contractual obligation to do so.
On June 23, 2020, the Court ordered that the case be referred to facilitative mediation to be completed by July 31, 2020. Discovery was ordered to commence immediately, and the case was ordered to be trial ready by mid-November 2020. Facilitative mediation
has not resulted in a settlement as of the date hereof.
On September 9, 2020, Simon filed a Supplemental Complaint. In the Supplemental Complaint, Simon alleges that the Taubman Parties breached certain interim operating covenants in the Merger Agreement by (i) amending their credit facilities and (ii) granting rent abatements and deferrals to distressed tenants. On September 16, 2020, the Taubman Parties filed an Answer, Affirmative Defenses, and Counterclaim (the Taubman Amended Answer and Counterclaim) in response to the Supplemental Complaint. In the Taubman Amended Answer and Counterclaim, the Taubman Parties deny that they breached the operating covenants in the Merger Agreement by amending their credit facilities or by granting rent abatements and deferrals to financially distressed tenants.
Trial is scheduled to begin on November 16, 2020, and is scheduled to conclude on November 20, 2020.
The consolidated financial statements of TCO include all accounts of TCO, TRG, and our consolidated businesses, including the Manager and Taubman Asia. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated. The entities included in these consolidated financial statements are separate legal entities and maintain records and books of account separate from any other entity. However, inclusion of these separate entities in our consolidated financial statements does not mean that the assets and credit of each of these legal entities are available to satisfy the debts or other obligations of any other such legal entity included in our consolidated financial statements.
In determining the method of accounting for partially owned joint ventures, we evaluate the characteristics of associated entities and determine whether an entity is a variable interest entity (VIE), and, if so, determine whether we are the primary beneficiary by analyzing whether we have both the power to direct the entity's significant economic activities and the obligation to absorb potentially significant losses or receive potentially significant benefits. Significant judgments and assumptions inherent in this analysis include the nature of the entity's operations, the entity's financing and capital structure, and contractual relationship and terms, including consideration of governance and decision making rights. We consolidate a VIE when we have determined that we are the primary beneficiary. All of our consolidated joint ventures, including TRG, meet the definition and criteria as VIEs, as either we or an affiliate of ours is the primary beneficiary of each VIE.
TCO's sole asset is an approximate 70% general partnership interest in TRG and, consequently, substantially all of TCO's consolidated assets and liabilities are assets and liabilities of TRG. All of TCO's debt (Note 5) is a direct obligation of TRG or one of our other consolidated subsidiaries. Note 5 also provides disclosure of guarantees provided by TRG to certain consolidated joint ventures and UJVs. Note 6 provides additional disclosures of the carrying balance of the noncontrolling interests in our consolidated joint ventures and other information, including a description of certain rights of the noncontrolling owners.
Investments in UJVs are accounted for under the equity method. We have evaluated our investments in UJVs under guidance for determining whether an entity is a VIE and have concluded that the ventures are not VIEs. Accordingly, we account for our interests in these entities under general accounting standards for investments in real estate ventures (including guidance for determining effective control of a limited partnership or similar entity). Our partners or other owners in these UJVs have substantive participating rights including approval rights over annual operating budgets, capital spending, financing, admission of new partners/members, or sale of the properties and we have concluded that the equity method of accounting is appropriate for these interests. Specifically, our 79% and 50.1% investments in Westfarms and International Plaza, respectively, are through general partnerships in which the other general partners have participating rights over annual operating budgets, capital spending, refinancing, or sale of the property. We provide our beneficial interest in certain financial information of our UJVs (Notes 4 and 5). This beneficial information is derived as our ownership interest in the investee multiplied by the specific financial statement item being presented. Investors are cautioned that deriving our beneficial interest in this manner may not accurately depict the legal and economic implications of holding a noncontrolling interest in the investee.
In addition to common stock, we had three classes of preferred stock outstanding (Series B, J, and K) as of September 30, 2020. Dividends on the 6.5% Series J Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (Series J Preferred Stock) and the 6.25% Series K Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (Series K Preferred Stock) are cumulative and are paid on the last business day of each calendar quarter. We own corresponding Series J and Series K Preferred Equity interests in TRG that entitle us to income and distributions (in the form of guaranteed payments) in amounts equal to the dividends payable on our Series J and Series K Preferred Stock. If the Merger Agreement referenced above is consummated per the terms of the agreement, immediately prior to the effective time of the merger of TCO with and into a subsidiary of Simon (REIT Merger Effective Time), TCO will issue a redemption notice and cause funds to be set aside to pay the redemption price for each share of Series J Preferred Stock and each share of Series K Preferred Stock, at their respective liquidation preference of $25.00 plus all accumulated and unpaid dividends up to, but not including, the redemption date of such share.
We are also obligated to issue to the noncontrolling partners of TRG, upon subscription, one share of Series B Non-Participating Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred Share) per each unit of limited partnership in TRG (TRG Unit). Each Series B Preferred Share entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to our shareholders. The holders of Series B Preferred Shares, voting as a class, have the right to designate up to four nominees for election as directors of TCO. On all other matters on which the holders of common stock are entitled to vote, including the election of directors, the holders of Series B Preferred Shares will vote with the holders of common stock. The holders of Series B Preferred Shares are not entitled to dividends or earnings of TCO. The Series B Preferred Shares are convertible into common stock at a ratio of 14,000 shares of Series B Preferred Stock for one share of common stock.
Outstanding voting securities of TCO at September 30, 2020 consisted of 25,979,064 shares of Series B Preferred Stock and 61,723,103 shares of common stock.
Dividends and Distributions
For both the three months ended September 30, 2020 and June 30, 2020, we did not pay a quarterly dividend to our common shareholders or any monthly distribution to participating securities of TRG. We continued to pay a quarterly dividend of $0.40625 per share on our 6.50% Series J Preferred Stock and $0.390625 per share on our 6.25% Series K Preferred Stock. The Board of Directors will continue to monitor our financial performance and liquidity position on an ongoing basis and will distribute taxable income, in the form of a common dividend and distributions to participating securities, in accordance with our partnership agreement and REIT qualification requirements as permitted under the new covenant waiver amendments (Note 5).
At September 30, 2020, TRG’s equity included two classes of preferred equity (Series J and K) and the net equity of the TRG unitholders. Net income and distributions of TRG are allocable first to the preferred equity interests, and the remaining amounts to the general and limited partners in TRG in accordance with their percentage ownership. The Series J and Series K Preferred Equity are owned by TCO and are eliminated in consolidation.
TCO's ownership in TRG at September 30, 2020 consisted of a 70% managing general partnership interest, as well as the Series J and Series K Preferred Equity interests. Our average ownership percentage in TRG for both the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was 70%. At September 30, 2020, TRG had 87,719,766 TRG Units outstanding, of which we owned 61,723,103 TRG Units. Disclosures about TRG Units outstanding exclude TRG Profits Units granted or other share-based grants for which TRG Units may eventually be issued (Note 8).
The remaining approximate 30% of TRG Units are owned by TRG's partners other than TCO, including the Taubman Family.
Shopping center space is leased to tenants and certain anchors pursuant to lease agreements. Future rental revenues under operating leases in effect at September 30, 2020 for operating centers, assuming no new or renegotiated leases or option extensions on anchor agreements, is summarized as follows:
Disaggregation of Revenue
The nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of individual types of revenues may be affected differently by economic factors. Under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", we are required to disclose a disaggregation of our revenues derived from contracts with customers that considers economic differences between revenue types. The following table summarizes our disaggregation of consolidated revenues for this purpose.
Three Months Ended September 30
Nine Months Ended September 30
Shopping center and other operational revenues
Management, leasing, and development services
Total revenue from contracts with customers
Information about Contract Balances and Unsatisfied Performance Obligations
Contract assets exist when we have a right to payment for services rendered that remains conditional on factors other than the passage of time. Similarly, contract liabilities are incurred when customers prepay for services to be rendered. Certain revenue streams within shopping center and other operational revenues may give rise to contract assets and liabilities. However, these revenue streams are generally short-term in nature and the difference between revenue recognition and cash collection, although variable, does not differ significantly from period to period. As of September 30, 2020, we had an inconsequential amount of contract assets and liabilities.
The aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to our performance obligations that were unsatisfied, or partially unsatisfied, as of September 30, 2020 were inconsequential.
We have been undergoing a restructuring to reduce our workforce and reorganize various areas of the organization in response to the completion of another major development cycle. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, we incurred $2.4 million and $2.8 million, respectively, of expense related to our restructuring efforts. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, we incurred $0.9 million and $1.6 million, respectively, of expense related to our restructuring efforts. These expenses have been separately classified as Restructuring Charges on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Costs Associated with Shareholder Activism
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, we incurred $0.7 million and $16.7 million of expense associated with activities related to shareholder activism, largely legal and advisory services. Expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 include a $5.0 million expense pursuant to an agreement with Land & Buildings Investment Management, LLC (Land & Buildings) for a reimbursement of a portion of the billed fees and expenses incurred by Land & Buildings and its affiliated funds in connection with Land & Buildings' activist involvement with TCO and the service on our Board of Directors of its founder and Chief Investment Officer, Jonathan Litt, which reimbursement represented a related party transaction. We received written certification from Land and Buildings that the actual billed fees and expenses as of the payment date exceeded $5.0 million.
Also included in the activism costs was a retention program for certain employees, which fully vested in December 2019. Given the uncertainties associated with shareholder activism and to ensure the retention of top talent in key positions within TCO, certain key employees were provided certain incentive benefits in the form of cash and/or equity retention awards. We and our Board of Directors believed these benefits were instrumental in ensuring the continued success of TCO during the retention period. Due to the unusual and infrequent nature of these expenses in our history, they were separately classified as Costs Associated with Shareholder Activism on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). No expenses associated with activities related to shareholder activism were incurred during the three or nine months ended September 30, 2020.
Management’s Responsibility to Evaluate Our Ability to Continue as a Going Concern
When preparing financial statements for each annual and interim reporting period, management has the responsibility to evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. No such conditions or events were identified as of the issuance date of the financial statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Change in Accounting Policies
Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Tenant Revenues
In connection with the adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases", on January 1, 2019, we began reviewing the collectibility of both billed and accrued charges under our tenant leases each quarter on a tenant by tenant basis considering the tenant’s payment history, credit-worthiness, aging of the receivable, the tenant's operating performance and other factors. For any tenant receivable balances thought to be uncollectible, we record an offset for uncollectible tenant revenues directly to Rental Revenues on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the total receivable balance, including straight-line receivables, and the tenant is transitioned to a cash basis for revenue recognition.
As a result of the above change in evaluation in uncollectible tenant revenues, the allowance for doubtful accounts was written off and an entry was recorded as of January 1, 2019 to adjust the receivables and equity balances of our Consolidated Businesses and UJVs. This resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment increasing Dividends in Excess of Net Income by $3.2 million and Non-redeemable Noncontrolling Interest by $1.8 million on our Consolidated Balance Sheet with offsetting increases in Accounts and Notes Receivable, Investment in UJVs, and Distributions in Excess of Investments In and Net Income of UJVs balances on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.