|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
||Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Organization and Basis of Presentation
Taubman Centers, Inc. (TCO) is a Michigan corporation that operates as a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (REIT). TCO's sole asset is an approximate 70% general partnership interest in The Taubman Realty Group Limited Partnership (TRG), which owns direct or indirect interests in all of our real estate properties. In this report, the terms "we", "us", and "our" refers to TCO, TRG, and/or TRG's subsidiaries as the context may require. We own, manage, lease, acquire, dispose of, develop, and expand retail shopping centers and interests therein. Our owned portfolio as of December 31, 2019 included 24 urban and suburban shopping centers operating in 11 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, South Korea, and China. The Taubman Company LLC (the Manager) provides certain management and administrative services for us and for our U.S. properties.
The Consolidated Businesses consist of shopping centers and entities that are controlled, through ownership or contractual agreements, by TRG, the Manager, or Taubman Properties Asia, LLC and its subsidiaries (Taubman Asia). Shopping centers owned through joint ventures that are not controlled by us but over which we have significant influence (Unconsolidated Joint Ventures, or UJVs) are accounted for under the equity method.
In May 2018, we entered into a redevelopment agreement for Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield, and all operations at the center, as well as the building and improvements, were transferred to The Staenberg Group (TSG). TSG leases the land from us through a long-term, participating ground lease. We have the right to terminate the ground lease in the event that a redevelopment has not begun within five years, with the buildings and improvements reverting to us upon such a termination. We have deferred recognition of a sale until our termination right is no longer available, with the right ceasing upon TSG commencing construction of a redevelopment. TSG has made significant progress on its redevelopment plans and the commencement of construction is probable within the year, leading to an expected sale of the property in 2020. Accordingly, the center was classified as held for sale as of December 31, 2019 and an impairment charge of $72.2 million was recognized in the fourth quarter, which reduced the book value of the buildings, improvements, and equipment that were transferred to zero. The shopping center has been excluded from our owned shopping center portfolio disclosure above.
Dollar amounts presented in tables within the notes to the financial statements are stated in thousands, except share data or as otherwise noted.
The consolidated financial statements of TCO include all accounts of TCO, TRG, and its consolidated subsidiaries, including the Manager and Taubman Asia. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated. The entities included in these consolidated financial statements are separate legal entities and maintain records and books of account separate from any other entity. However, inclusion of these separate entities in the consolidated financial statements does not mean that the assets and credit of each of these legal entities are available to satisfy the debts or other obligations of any other such legal entity included in the consolidated financial statements.
In determining the method of accounting for partially owned joint ventures, we evaluate the characteristics of associated entities and determine whether an entity is a variable interest entity (VIE), and, if so, determine whether we are the primary beneficiary by analyzing whether we have both the power to direct the entity's significant economic activities and the obligation to absorb potentially significant losses or receive potentially significant benefits. Significant judgments and assumptions inherent in this analysis include the nature of the entity's operations, the entity's financing and capital structure, and contractual relationship and terms, including consideration of governance and decision making rights. We consolidate a VIE when we have determined that we are the primary beneficiary. All of our consolidated joint ventures, including TRG, meet the definition and criteria as VIEs, as either we or an affiliate of ours is the primary beneficiary of each VIE.
TCO's sole asset is an approximate 70% general partnership interest in TRG and, consequently, substantially all of TCO's consolidated assets and liabilities are assets and liabilities of TRG. All of TCO's debt (Note 8) is an obligation of TRG or our consolidated subsidiaries. Note 8 also provides disclosure of guarantees provided by TRG to certain consolidated joint ventures. Note 9 provides additional disclosures of the carrying balance of the noncontrolling interests in our consolidated joint ventures and other information, including a description of certain rights of the noncontrolling owners.
Investments in UJVs are accounted for under the equity method. We have evaluated our investments in the UJVs under guidance for determining whether an entity is a VIE and have concluded that the ventures are not VIEs. Accordingly, we account for our interests in these entities under general accounting standards for investments in real estate ventures (including guidance for determining effective control of a limited partnership or similar entity). Our partners or other owners in these UJVs have substantive participating rights including approval rights over annual operating budgets, capital spending, financing, admission of new partners/members, or sale of the properties and we have concluded that the equity method of accounting is appropriate for these interests. Specifically, our 79% and 50.1% investments in Westfarms and International Plaza, respectively, are through general partnerships in which the other general partners have participating rights over annual operating budgets, capital spending, refinancing, or sale of the property. We provide our beneficial interest in certain financial information of our UJVs (Notes 5 and 8). This beneficial information is derived as our ownership interest in the investee multiplied by the specific financial statement item being presented. Investors are cautioned that deriving our beneficial interest in this manner may not accurately depict the legal and economic implications of holding a noncontrolling interest in the investee.
At December 31, 2019 and 2018, TRG's equity included two classes of preferred equity (Series J and K Preferred Equity) and the net equity of the TRG unitholders. Net income and distributions of TRG are allocable first to the preferred equity interests, and the remaining amounts to the general and limited partners in TRG in accordance with their percentage ownership. The Series J and K Preferred Equity are owned by TCO and are eliminated in consolidation.
The partnership equity of TRG and TCO's ownership therein are shown below:
TRG Units outstanding at December 31
TRG Units owned by TCO at December 31(1)
TRG Units owned by noncontrolling interests at December 31
TCO's % interest in TRG at December 31
TCO's average interest % in TRG
There is a one-for-one relationship between TRG Units owned by TCO and TCO common shares outstanding; amounts in this column are equal to TCO’s common shares outstanding as of the specified dates.
Outstanding voting securities of TCO at December 31, 2019 consisted of 26,398,473 shares of Series B Non-Participating Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred Shares) (Note 14) and 61,228,579 shares of common stock.
The remaining approximate 30% of TRG Units are owned by TRG’s partners other than TCO, including Robert S. Taubman, William S. Taubman, Gayle Taubman Kalisman, and the A. Alfred Taubman Restated Revocable Trust (Taubman Family).
Shopping center space is generally leased to tenants under short and intermediate term leases that are accounted for as operating leases. Rental revenues are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease terms, unless specific tenant circumstances indicate that the revenue should be recorded on a cash basis. For traditional net leases, where tenants reimburse the landlord for an allocation of reimbursable costs incurred, we recognize revenue in the period the applicable costs are chargeable to tenants. Overage rent is accrued when lessees' specified sales targets have been met (Note 11).
Disaggregation of Revenue
The nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of individual types of revenues may be affected differently by economic factors. Under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", we are required to disclose a disaggregation of our revenues derived from contracts with customers that considers economic differences between revenue types. The following table summarizes our disaggregation of consolidated revenues for this purpose.
Year Ended December 31
Shopping center and other operational revenues (2)
Management, leasing, and development services
Total revenue from contracts with customers
Pursuant to our adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases", beginning January 1, 2019, expense recoveries have been combined with minimum rent on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) into Rental Revenues and is no longer required to be disaggregated.
Represents consolidated Other revenue reported on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) excluding lease cancellation income for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Pursuant to the adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases", beginning January 1, 2019, lease cancellation income is now presented in Rental Revenues on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Nature of Services and Performance Obligations
Expense recoveries revenue represented reimbursements from mall tenants for (1) services performed by us to the benefit of all mall tenants and the property as a whole for common area maintenance, (2) insurance, property taxes, and utilities, and (3) promotion and other miscellaneous charges. Pursuant to our adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases", beginning January 1, 2019, expense recoveries have been combined with minimum rent on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) into Rental Revenues and is no longer required to be disaggregated.
Shopping center and other operational revenues represent a collection of non-core revenue streams that are generated through the course of owning and operating a shopping center, including sponsorship, parking, and storage income, as well as revenues from food and beverage operations. The contracts for these revenue streams are predominately short-term in nature and individually do not contain more than one performance obligation. In addition, we record revenue for property services fees billed for the management of our Asia centers, which represents one performance obligation. We satisfy our performance obligations related to shopping center and other operational revenues either over time or at a point in time, depending on the specific nature of the revenue generating activity. For performance obligations that are satisfied at a point in time, including food and beverage and parking income, the control of the good or service is immediately transferred to the customer upon completion of the performance obligation. Payment terms related to shopping center and other operational revenues vary depending on the nature of the agreement, however, payment is generally due directly upon the satisfaction of the related performance obligation.
Management, leasing, and development services revenue represents income from various services performed by us for our third party customers, as provided for under management agreements. These services typically generate fees that are based on operating results of the shopping centers, the execution and opening of mall tenants, and/or the successful completion of other agreed-upon services. As each management agreement provides for a variety of services, significant judgment is required to identify multiple performance obligations. The standalone selling price of each performance obligation is determined based on the terms of the management agreement and the specific services being rendered. Each performance obligation is considered to be satisfied over time as services are rendered. The related revenue is recognized upon billing, as the amounts invoiced generally correspond directly with the value the customer is receiving from the services. Customers are invoiced on a quarterly basis and payment is generally due within 30 days of each calendar quarter.
Information about Contract Balances and Unsatisfied Performance Obligations
Contract assets exist when we have a right to payment for services rendered that remains conditional on factors other than the passage of time. Similarly, contract liabilities are incurred when customers prepay for services to be rendered. Certain revenue streams within shopping center and other operational revenues may give rise to contract assets and liabilities. However, these revenue streams are generally short-term in nature and the difference between revenue recognition and cash collection, although variable, does not differ significantly from period to period. As of December 31, 2019, we had an inconsequential amount of contract assets and liabilities.
The aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to our performance obligations that were unsatisfied, or partially unsatisfied, as of December 31, 2019 were inconsequential.
Depreciation and Amortization
Buildings, improvements, and equipment are primarily depreciated on straight-line bases over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which generally range from 3 to 50 years. Capital expenditures that are recoverable from tenants are generally depreciated over the estimated recovery period. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Tenant allowances are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life of the leasehold improvements or the lease term. Deferred leasing costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lives of the related leases. In the event of early termination of such leases, the unrecoverable net book values of the assets are recognized as depreciation and amortization expense in the period of termination.
Direct and indirect costs that are clearly related to the acquisition, development, construction, and improvement of properties are capitalized. Compensation costs are allocated based on actual time spent on a project. Costs incurred on real estate for ground leases, property taxes, insurance, and interest costs for qualifying assets are capitalized during periods in which activities necessary to get the property ready for its intended use are in progress.
The viability of all projects under construction or development, including those owned by UJVs, are regularly evaluated on an individual basis under the accounting for abandonment of assets or changes in use. To the extent a project, or individual components of the project, are no longer considered to have value, the related capitalized costs are charged against operations. Additionally, all properties are reviewed for impairment on an individual basis whenever events or changes in circumstances, such as changes in expected holding periods, indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. Impairment of a shopping center owned by consolidated entities is recognized when the sum of expected cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying value of the property. Other than temporary impairment of an investment in an UJV is recognized when the carrying value of the investment is not considered recoverable based on evaluation of the severity and duration of the decline in value, including the results of discounted cash flow and other valuation techniques. To the extent impairment has occurred, the excess carrying value of the asset over its estimated fair value is charged to income. In the fourth quarter of December 31, 2019, we recognized $72.2 million as an Impairment Charge on Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) and our beneficial share of an impairment charge of $18.0 million on Stamford Town Center in Equity in Income of UJVs on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) (Note 5). No impairment charges were recognized for the years ended December 31, 2018 or 2017.
In leasing a shopping center space, we may provide funding to the lessee through a tenant allowance. In accounting for a tenant allowance, we determine whether the allowance represents funding for the construction of leasehold improvements and evaluate the ownership, for accounting purposes, of such improvements. If we are considered the owner of the leasehold improvements for accounting purposes, we capitalize the amount of the tenant allowance and depreciate it over the shorter of the useful life of the leasehold improvements or the lease term. If the tenant allowance represents a payment for a purpose other than funding leasehold improvements, or in the event we are not considered the owner of the improvements for accounting purposes, the allowance is considered to be a lease incentive and is recognized over the lease term as a reduction of rental revenue. Factors considered during this evaluation usually include (1) who holds legal title to the improvements, (2) evidentiary requirements concerning the spending of the tenant allowance, and (3) other controlling rights provided by the lease agreement (e.g. unilateral control of the tenant space during the build-out process). Determination of the accounting for a tenant allowance is made on a case-by-case basis, considering the facts and circumstances of the individual tenant lease. Substantially all of our tenant allowances have been determined to be leasehold improvements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with a maturity of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We deposit cash and cash equivalents with institutions with high credit quality. From time to time, cash and cash equivalents may be in excess of FDIC insurance limits. Substantially all cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2019 were not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency and were invested across nine separate financial institutions as of December 31, 2019. Included in restricted cash is $0.4 million at December 31, 2019 on deposit in excess of the FDIC insured limit.
We recognize the assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any noncontrolling interests in the acquiree at their fair values as of the acquisition date. The cost of acquiring a controlling ownership interest or an additional ownership interest (if not already consolidated) is allocated to the tangible assets acquired (such as land and building) and to any identifiable intangible assets based on their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. The fair value of a property is determined on an "as-if-vacant" basis. Management considers various factors in estimating the "as-if-vacant" value including an estimated lease up period, lost rents, and carrying costs. The identifiable intangible assets would include the estimated value of "in-place" leases, above and below market "in-place" leases, and tenant relationships. The portion of the purchase price that management determines should be allocated to identifiable intangible assets is amortized in depreciation and amortization or as an adjustment to rental revenue, as appropriate, over the estimated life of the associated intangible asset (for instance, the remaining life of the associated tenant lease). We account for the acquisition of shopping centers as asset acquisitions, and as such, costs related to the acquisition of controlling and non-controlling interests, including due diligence costs, professional fees, and other costs related to the acquisition, are capitalized.
Deferred Charges and Other Assets
Direct costs related to successful leasing activities are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the lives of the related leases. Cash expenditures for leasing costs are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows as operating activities. Debt issuance costs incurred in connection with our revolving lines of credit are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis, which approximates the effective interest method. All other deferred charges are amortized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the agreements to which they relate.
Share-Based Compensation Plans
The cost of share-based compensation is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the award, and is recognized over the requisite employee service period which is generally the vesting period of the grant. We recognize compensation costs for awards with graded vesting schedules on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was, in-substance, multiple awards. We recognize compensation costs for awards with net operating income performance conditions based on the grant date fair value of the award that coincides with the expected outcome of the condition, as updated for actual results (Note 13).
Interest Rate Hedging Agreements
All derivatives, whether designated in hedging relationships or not, are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. If a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, all changes in the fair value of the derivative are recorded in other comprehensive income (OCI) and are recognized in the income statement when the hedged item affects income (Note 10).
We formally document all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as our risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking various hedge transactions. We assess, both at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in the cash flows of the hedged items.
We carry liability insurance to mitigate our exposure to certain losses, including those relating to property damage and business interruption. We record the estimated amount of expected insurance proceeds for property damage and other losses incurred as an asset (typically a receivable from the insurer) and income up to the amount of the losses incurred when receipt of insurance proceeds is deemed probable. Any amount of insurance recovery in excess of the amount of the losses incurred is considered a gain contingency and is not recorded until the proceeds are received. Insurance recoveries for business interruption for lost revenue or profit are accounted for as gain contingencies in their entirety, and therefore are not recorded in income until the proceeds are received.
During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we recorded insurance proceeds related to reimbursement of expenses and property damage incurred at The Mall of San Juan as a result of Hurricane Maria (Note 15).
We operate in such a manner as to qualify as a REIT under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. To qualify as a REIT, we must distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, to our shareholders and meet certain other requirements. As a REIT, we are entitled to a dividends paid deduction for the dividends we pay to our shareholders. Therefore, we will generally not be subject to federal income taxes under current Federal income tax law as long as we currently distribute to our shareholders an amount equal to or in excess of our taxable income. REIT qualification reduces but does not eliminate the amount of state and local taxes paid by us. In addition, a REIT may be subject to certain excise taxes if it engages in certain activities.
No provision for federal income taxes for consolidated partnerships has been made; as such taxes are the responsibility of the individual partners under current Federal income tax law. There are certain state income taxes incurred which are provided for in our financial statements.
We have made Taxable REIT Subsidiary (TRS) elections for all of our subsidiaries that are treated as corporations for federal income tax purposes pursuant to section 856 (I) of the Internal Revenue Code. The TRSs are subject to corporate level income taxes, including federal, state, and certain foreign income taxes for foreign operations, which are provided for in our financial statements.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the impact of temporary differences between the amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the bases of such assets and liabilities as measured by tax laws. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the amount where realization is more likely than not assured after considering all available evidence, including expected taxable earnings. Our temporary differences primarily relate to deferred compensation, depreciation, and net operating loss carryforwards.
In connection with the revised 21% Federal corporate income tax rate under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (2017 Tax Act), we adjusted our net Federal deferred tax asset to reflect the change in tax rate (Note 3). Future changes to tax laws could affect the taxation of the REIT, partnerships and Taxable REIT subsidiaries, possibly having a significant impact on the current and deferred income taxes of TCO.
Severance Plans and Restructuring Charges
We have severance plans in place for certain employees, which we account for as a post-employment benefit. We recognize a liability and expense when it is probable that employees will be entitled to benefits under the severance plans and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
We have been undergoing a restructuring to reduce our workforce and reorganize various areas of the organization in response to the completion of another major development cycle and the current near-term challenges facing the U.S. mall industry. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, we incurred restructuring charges of $3.5 million, $0.6 million, and $13.8 million, respectively. These expenses have been separately classified as Restructuring Charges on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). As of December 31, 2019, $0.2 million of the restructuring costs recognized during 2019 were unpaid and remained accrued.
Costs Associated with Shareholder Activism
During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we incurred $17.3 million, $12.5 million, and $14.5 million, respectively, of expense associated with activities related to shareholder activism, largely legal and advisory services. Expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 included $5.0 million pursuant to an agreement with Land & Buildings Investment Management, LLC (Land & Buildings) for a reimbursement of a portion of the billed fees and expenses incurred by Land & Buildings and its affiliated funds in connection with Land & Buildings' activist involvement with TCO and the service on our Board of Directors of its founder and Chief Investment Officer, Jonathan Litt. The reimbursement represented a related party transaction. We received written certification from Land & Buildings that the actual billed fees and expenses as of the payment date exceeded $5.0 million.
Also included in the activism costs was a retention program for certain employees. Given the uncertainties associated with shareholder activism and to ensure the retention of top talent in key positions within TCO, certain key employees were provided certain incentive benefits in the form of cash and/or equity retention awards. We and our Board of Directors believed these benefits were instrumental in ensuring the continued success of TCO during the retention period. Due to the unusual and infrequent nature of these expenses in our history, they have been separately classified as Costs Associated with Shareholder Activism on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). As of December 31, 2019, all incentive benefits under the retention awards had vested.
Noncontrolling interests in TCO are comprised of the ownership interests of (1) noncontrolling interests in TRG and (2) the noncontrolling interests in joint ventures controlled by us through ownership or contractual arrangements. Consolidated net income and comprehensive income includes amounts attributable to us and the noncontrolling interests. Transactions that change our ownership interest in a subsidiary are accounted for as equity transactions if we retain our controlling financial interest in the subsidiary.
We evaluate whether noncontrolling interests are subject to any redemption features outside of our control that would result in presentation outside of permanent equity pursuant to general accounting standards regarding the classification and measurement of redeemable equity instruments. Certain noncontrolling interests in TRG and consolidated ventures of TCO qualify as redeemable noncontrolling interests (Note 9). To the extent such noncontrolling interests are currently redeemable or it is probable that they will eventually become redeemable, these interests are adjusted to the greater of their redemption value or their carrying value at each balance sheet date.
Foreign Currency Translation
We have certain entities in Asia for which the functional currency is the local currency. The assets and liabilities of the entities are translated from their functional currency into U.S. Dollars at the rate of exchange in effect on the balance sheet date. Income statement accounts are generally translated using the average exchange rate for the period. Income statement amounts of significant transactions are translated at the rate in effect as of the date of the transaction. Our share of unrealized gains and losses resulting from the translation of the entities' financial statements are reflected in shareholders' equity as a component of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) on our Consolidated Balance Sheet (Note 19).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Segments and Related Disclosures
We have one reportable operating segment: we own, develop, and manage shopping centers. We have aggregated our shopping centers into this one reportable segment, as the shopping centers share similar economic characteristics and other similarities. The shopping centers are located in major metropolitan areas, have similar tenants, are operated using consistent business strategies, and are expected to exhibit similar long-term financial performance. Net Operating Income (NOI) is often used by our chief operating decision makers in assessing segment operating performance. NOI is believed to be a useful indicator of operating performance as it is customary in the real estate and shopping center business to evaluate the performance of properties on a basis unaffected by capital structure.
No single retail company represents 5% or more of our revenues. Our consolidated revenues and assets do not have any material amounts derived from countries other than the United States, as our investments in Asia are in UJVs that are accounted for under the equity method.
Management's Responsibility to Evaluate TCO's Ability to Continue as a Going Concern
When preparing financial statements for each annual and interim reporting period, management has the responsibility to evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. No such conditions or events were identified as of the issuance date of the financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Change in Accounting Policies
Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
On January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-01, "Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities", which changed certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. As such, we now measure equity securities at fair value through net income, except for those that result in consolidation or are accounted for under the equity method. Upon adoption, we applied the modified-retrospective approach and recorded a one-time cumulative-effect adjustment to reclassify $1.0 million of historical unrealized gains on the fair value adjustments as of December 31, 2017 of our investment in Simon Property Group, Inc. (Simon) common shares from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) (AOCI) to Dividends in Excess of Net Income on our Consolidated Balance Sheet. Beginning in January 2018, changes in the fair value of any outstanding Simon common shares are being recorded in Nonoperating Income, Net on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) (Notes 7 and 17).
Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Tenant Revenues
In connection with the adoption of ASC Topic 842, "Leases" (Note 11), we now review the collectibility of both billed and accrued charges under our tenant leases each quarter taking into consideration the tenant's historical payment status, credit profile, and known issues related to tenant operations. For any tenant receivable balances thought to be uncollectible, we now record an offset for uncollectible tenant revenues directly to Rental Revenues on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Uncollectible tenant revenues were previously reported as bad debt expense in Other Operating expense on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Our allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2018 was $10.4 million.
As a result of the above change in evaluation in uncollectible tenant revenues, the allowance for doubtful accounts was written off and an entry was recorded as of January 1, 2019 to adjust the receivables and equity balance of our Consolidated Businesses and UJVs. This resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment increasing Dividends in Excess of Net Income by $3.2 million and Non-redeemable Noncontrolling Interest by $1.8 million on our Consolidated Balance Sheet with offsetting increases in Accounts and Notes Receivable, Investment in UJVs, and Distributions in Excess of Investments In and Net Income of UJVs balances on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.