(2) Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its majority and wholly owned subsidiaries. Upon consolidation, all intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated.
Cash equivalents consist of instruments with remaining maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase and consist primarily of money market funds, for which the carrying amount is a reasonable estimate of fair value.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The allowance for doubtful accounts is established to represent the Company’s best estimate of the net realizable value of the outstanding accounts receivable. The development of the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts varies by region but in general is based on a review of past due amounts, historical write-off experience, as well as aging trends affecting specific accounts and general operational factors affecting all accounts. In addition, factors are developed in certain regions utilizing historical trends of sales and returns and allowances and cash discount activities to derive a reserve for returns and allowances and cash discounts.
The Company considers current economic trends and changes in customer payment terms when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company also monitors the creditworthiness of the Company’s largest customers and periodically reviews customer credit limits to reduce risk. If circumstances relating to specific customers change or unanticipated changes occur in the general business environment, the Company’s estimates of the recoverability of receivables could be further adjusted.
Concentration of Credit
The Company sells products to a diversified customer base and, therefore, has no significant concentrations of credit risk. In 2019, 2018, and 2017, no customer accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s total sales or accounts receivable.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, using the first-in, first-out method. Market value is determined by replacement cost or net realizable value. The Company utilizes both specific product identification and historical product demand as the basis for determining its excess or obsolete inventory reserve. The Company identifies all inventories that exceed a range of to three years in sales. This is determined by comparing the current inventory balance against unit sales for the trailing twelve months. New products added to inventory within the past twelve months are excluded from this analysis. A portion of the Company’s products contain recoverable materials, therefore the excess and obsolete reserve is established net of any recoverable amounts. Changes in market conditions, lower-than- expected customer demand or changes in technology or features could result in additional obsolete inventory that is not saleable and could require additional inventory reserve provisions.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is recorded when the consideration paid for acquisitions exceeds the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but rather are tested for impairment at least annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that it is “more likely than not” that they might be impaired, such as from a change in business conditions. The Company performs its annual goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment assessment in the fourth quarter of each year.
Intangible assets with estimable lives and other long-lived assets are reviewed for indicators of impairment at least quarterly or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from 10 to 40 years for buildings and improvements and 3 to 15 years for machinery and equipment. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the lesser of the economic useful life of the asset or the remaining lease term.
The Company has leases for the following classes of underlying assets: real estate, automobiles, manufacturing equipment, facility equipment, office equipment and certain service arrangements that are dependent on an identified asset. The Company determines if an arrangement qualifies as a lease at its inception. The Company, as the lessee, recognizes in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset (“ROU”) representing the right to use the underlying asset for both finance and operating leases with a lease term longer than twelve months. The Company elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify and does not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for short-term leases. The Company recognizes short-term lease payments on a straight-line basis over the lease term in the consolidated statement of operations. The Company determines the initial classification and measurement of its ROU assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date and thereafter if modified.
For operating leases, the lease liability is initially and subsequently measured at the present value of the unpaid lease payments at the lease commencement date. For finance leases, the lease liability is initially measured in the same manner and date as operating leases and is subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
Measuring the lease liability requires certain estimates and judgments. These estimates and judgments include how the Company determines 1) the discount rate it uses to discount the unpaid lease payments to present value; 2) lease term; and 3) lease payments.
|●||The present value of lease payments is determined using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate is readily determinable; otherwise, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate. Generally, the Company cannot determine the interest rate implicit in the lease because it does not have access to the lessor’s estimated residual value or the amount of the lessor’s deferred initial direct costs. Therefore, the Company uses the incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate for the lease. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate for a lease is the rate of interest it would have to pay on a collateralized basis to borrow an amount equal to the lease payments under a similar term. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate is determined by using a portfolio approach by geographic region, considering many factors, such as the Company’s specific credit risk, the amount of the lease payments, collateralized nature of the lease, both borrowing term and the lease term, and geographical economic considerations.|
|●||The lease term for all of the Company’s leases includes the fixed, noncancelable term of the lease plus (a) all periods, if any, covered by options to extend the lease if the Company is reasonably certain to exercise that option, (b) all periods, if any, covered by an option to terminate the lease if the Company is reasonably certain not to exercise that option, and (c) all periods, if any, covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor. When determining if a renewal option is |
|reasonably certain of being exercised, the Company considers several economic factors, including but not limited to, the significance of leasehold improvements incurred on the property, whether the asset is difficult to replace, underlying contractual obligations, or specific characteristics unique to that particular lease that would make it reasonably certain to exercise such option.|
|●||Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability include the following:|
|o||Fixed payments, including in-substance fixed payments, owed over the lease term (which includes termination penalties the Company would owe if the lease term assumes Company exercise of a termination option), less any lease incentives paid or payable to the Company;|
|o||Variable lease payments that depend on an index or rate initially measured using the index or rate at the commencement date; |
|o||Amounts expected to be payable under a Company-provided residual value guarantee; and|
|o||The exercise price of a Company option to purchase the underlying asset if the Company is reasonably certain to exercise that option.|
The ROU asset is initially measured at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for the lease payments made at or before the lease commencement date, plus any initial direct costs incurred less any lease incentives received.
For operating leases, the ROU asset is subsequently measured throughout the lease term at the carrying amount of the lease liability, plus initial direct costs, plus (minus) any prepaid (accrued) lease payments, less the unamortized balance of lease incentives received. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the reasonably assured lease term based on the total lease payments and is included in cost of goods sold or within selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations, based on the primary use of the ROU asset.
For finance leases, the Company recognizes the amortization of the ROU asset on a straight-line basis from the lease commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life or the end of the lease term unless the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the Company or the Company is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset. In those cases, the ROU asset is amortized over the useful life of the underlying asset. Amortization of the ROU asset is recognized in depreciation in the consolidated statements of operations. The interest expense related to finance leases is recognized using the effective interest method and is included within interest expense.
Variable lease payments associated with the Company’s leases are recognized in the period when the event, activity, or circumstance in the lease agreement on which those payments are assessed occurs and are included in cost of goods sold or within selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations, based on the primary use of the ROU asset.
ROU assets for operating and finance leases are periodically assessed for impairment. The Company uses the long-lived assets impairment guidance in ASC Subtopic 360-10, Property, Plant, and Equipment- Overall, to determine whether an ROU asset is impaired, and if so, the amount of the impairment loss to recognize.
The Company monitors for events or changes in circumstances that require a reassessment of one of its leases. When a reassessment results in a remeasurement of a lease liability, a corresponding adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the corresponding ROU asset unless doing so would reduce the carrying amount of the ROU asset to an amount less than zero. In that case, the amount of the adjustment that would result in a negative ROU asset balance is recorded in the statement of operations.
Taxes, Other than Income Taxes
Taxes assessed by governmental authorities on sale transactions are recorded on a net basis and excluded from sales in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets
and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company recognizes tax benefits when the item in question meets the more–likely–than-not (greater than 50% likelihood of being sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities) threshold.
Foreign Currency Translation
The functional currency for most of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries is their local currency. For non-U.S. subsidiaries that transact in a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar, assets and liabilities are translated at current rates of exchange at the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at the average foreign currency exchange rates for the period. Adjustments resulting from the translation of the financial statements of foreign operations into U.S. dollars are excluded from the determination of net income and are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income, a separate component of equity. Transaction gains and losses are included in other (income) expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations. For subsidiaries where the functional currency of the assets and liabilities differs from the local currency, non-monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the rate of exchange in effect on the date assets were acquired while monetary assets and liabilities are translated at current rates of exchange as of the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at the average foreign currency rates for the period. Translation adjustments for these subsidiaries are included in other (income) expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company records compensation expense in the financial statements for share-based awards based on the grant date fair value of those awards for restricted stock awards and deferred stock awards. Stock-based compensation expense for restricted stock awards and deferred stock awards is recognized over the requisite service periods of the awards on a straight-line basis, which is generally commensurate with the vesting term. The performance stock units offered by the Company to employees are amortized to expense over the vesting period, and based on the Company’s performance relative to the performance goals, may be adjusted. Changes to the estimated shares expected to vest will result in adjustments to the related share-based compensation expense that will be recorded in the period of change. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur, rather than estimate expected forfeitures over the vesting period of the respective grant. The Company does not reclassify the benefits associated with tax deductions in excess of recognized compensation cost from operating activities to financing activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
Net Income Per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. The calculation of diluted net income per share assumes the conversion of all dilutive securities.
Net income and the number of shares used to compute net income per share, basic and assuming full dilution, are reconciled below:
Year Ended December 31,
(Amounts in millions, except per share information)
Dilutive securities, principally common stock options
In the normal course of business, the Company manages risks associated with commodity prices, foreign exchange rates and interest rates through a variety of strategies, including the use of hedging transactions, executed in accordance with the Company’s policies. The Company’s hedging transactions include, but are not limited to, the use of various derivative financial and commodity instruments. As a matter of policy, the Company does not use derivative instruments unless there is an underlying exposure. Any change in value of the derivative instruments would be substantially offset by an opposite change in the value of the underlying hedged items. The Company does not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Derivative instruments may be designated and accounted for as either a hedge of a recognized asset or liability (fair value hedge) or a hedge of a forecasted transaction (cash flow hedge). For a fair value hedge, both the effective and ineffective portions of the change in fair value of the derivative instrument, along with an adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item for fair value changes attributable to the hedged risk, are recognized in earnings. For a cash flow hedge, changes in the fair value of the derivative instrument that are highly effective are deferred in accumulated other comprehensive income or loss until the underlying hedged item is recognized in earnings. The Company has two interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges as of December 31, 2019 and 2018. The Company also has foreign exchange hedges designated as cash flow hedges as of December 31, 2019 and 2018. Refer to Note 16 for further details.
If a fair value or cash flow hedge were to cease to qualify for hedge accounting or be terminated, it would continue to be carried on the balance sheet at fair value until settled, but hedge accounting would be discontinued prospectively. If a forecasted transaction were no longer probable of occurring, amounts previously deferred in accumulated other comprehensive income would be recognized immediately in earnings. On occasion, the Company may enter into a derivative instrument that does not qualify for hedge accounting because it is entered into to offset changes in the fair value of an underlying transaction which is required to be recognized in earnings (natural hedge). These instruments are reflected in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings.
Portions of the Company’s outstanding debt are exposed to interest rate risks. The Company monitors its interest rate exposures on an ongoing basis to maximize the overall effectiveness of its interest rates.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. An entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available, and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
The Company has certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and certain nonfinancial assets and liabilities that may be measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. The fair value disclosures of these assets and liabilities are based on a three-level hierarchy, which is defined as follows:
Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
Assets and liabilities subject to this hierarchy are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability. Refer to Note 16 for further details.
Shipping and Handling
Shipping and handling costs included in selling, general and administrative expense amounted to $57.6 million, $56.3 million and $52.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Research and Development
Research and development costs included in selling, general, and administrative expense amounted to $39.6 million, $34.5 million and $29.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company recognizes revenue under the core principle to depict the transfer of control to the Company’s customers in an amount reflecting the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled. In order to achieve that core principle, the Company applies the following five-step approach: (1) identify the contract with a customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) recognize revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied.
The Company’s revenue for product sales is recognized on a point in time model, at the point control transfers to the customer, which is generally when products are shipped from the Company’s manufacturing or distribution facilities or when delivered to the customer’s named location. Sales tax, value-added tax, or other taxes collected concurrent with revenue producing activities are excluded from revenue. Freight costs billed to customers for shipping and handling activities are included in revenue with the related cost included in selling, general and administrative expenses. See Note 4 for further disclosures and detail regarding revenue recognition.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In August 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2017-12, “Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815)-Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities.” ASU 2017-12 amends the hedge accounting guidance to improve the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better portray the economic results of an entity’s risk management activities in the financial statements. This guidance permits hedge accounting for risk components in hedging relationships that involve nonfinancial risk, reduces complexity in hedging for fair value hedges of interest rate risk, eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedging ineffectiveness, and simplifies certain hedge effectiveness assessment requirements. This standard was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2019, and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” ASU 2016-02 requires a lessee to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments and an ROU asset representing the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term for both finance and operating leases with a term longer than twelve months. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU 2018-01, “Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842,” ASU 2018-10, “Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases,” and ASU 2018-11 “Targeted Improvements.” ASU 2016-02 was effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Under ASC 842, leases are classified as finance or operating, with the classification determining the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the income statement.
A modified retrospective transition approach was required, applying the new standard to all leases existing at the date of initial application. The Company could choose to use either 1) the effective date of the standard or 2) the beginning of the earliest comparable period presented in the financial statements as the date of initial application. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019 and used the effective date of the standard as the date of the Company’s initial application. By electing this approach, the financial information and the disclosures required under the new
standard are not provided for dates and periods before January 1, 2019. The Company designed the necessary changes to its existing processes and configured all system requirements that were necessary to implement this new standard.
The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients throughout the transition. The Company elected the “package of practical expedients,” which permitted the Company to not reassess under the new standard the Company’s prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification, and initial direct costs. The Company did not elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements, the latter not being applicable to the Company. The Company also elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for all of the Company’s leases.
As a result of adopting ASC 842, the Company recorded operating ROU assets of $33.6 million and operating lease liabilities of $33.9 million as of January 1, 2019 on the consolidated balance sheet. The difference between the ROU assets and lease liabilities related to the impact of eliminating deferred and prepaid lease payments recognized under the previous lease accounting standard. The Company’s adoption of ASC 842 did not result in a change to the Company’s recognition of its existing finance leases as of January 1, 2019. The adoption of the new lease accounting standard did not have a material impact on either the consolidated statement of operations or the consolidated statement of cash flows. However, ASU 2016-02 has significantly affected the Company’s disclosures about noncash activities related to leases. Additionally, the Company’s lease-related disclosures have significantly increased as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to prior years. See Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Updates
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” This ASU simplifies the accounting for income taxes by clarifying and amending existing guidance related to the recognition of franchise tax, the evaluation of a step up in the tax basis of goodwill, and the effects of enacted changes in tax laws or rates in the effective tax rate computation, among other clarifications. The effective date for adoption of this ASU is the calendar year beginning January 1, 2021 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on the Company’s financial statements, and does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40)-Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract.” ASU 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. This guidance requires an entity in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract to follow the guidance in Subtopic 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as an asset related to the service contract and which costs to expense. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on the Company’s financial statements, and does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820)-Disclosure Framework- Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement.” ASU 2018-13 modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements under Topic 820. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on the Company’s disclosures; however, this guidance does not impact the Company’s financial statements.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326).” ASU 2016-13 replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology under current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires the use of a forward-looking expected credit loss model for accounts receivable, loans, and other financial instruments. This standard is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The standard requires a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The Company plans to adopt the new credit loss standard effective January 1, 2020. The Company does not expect the new credit loss standard to have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.