Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation and Presentation — The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Oshkosh and all of its majority-owned or controlled subsidiaries and are prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates — The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition — Through September 30, 2018, the Company recognized revenue on equipment and parts sales when contract terms were met, collectability was reasonably assured and a product was shipped or risk of ownership had been transferred to and accepted by the customer. Revenue from service agreements was recognized as earned, when services had been rendered. Appropriate provisions were made for discounts, returns and sales allowances. Sales were recorded net of amounts invoiced for taxes imposed on the customer such as excise or value-added taxes.
Sales to the U.S. government of non-commercial products manufactured to the government’s specifications are recognized under percentage-of-completion accounting using either the units-of-delivery method or cost-to-cost method to measure contract performance. Under the units-of-delivery method, the Company records sales as units are accepted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), generally based on unit sales values stated in the respective contracts. Costs of sales are based on actual costs incurred to produce the units delivered under the contract. Under the cost-to-cost method, sales and estimated margins are recognized as contract costs are incurred. The measurement method selected is generally determined based on the nature of the contract. The Company includes amounts representing contract change orders, claims or other items in sales only when they can be reliably estimated and realization is probable. Bid and proposal costs are expensed as incurred. The Company has significant experience in contracting and producing vehicles for the defense industry, which has resulted in a history of making reasonable estimates of revenues and costs when measuring progress toward contract completion. The Company charges anticipated losses on contracts or programs in progress to earnings when identified. Approximately 21%, 16% and 19% of the Company’s revenues were recognized under the percentage-of-completion accounting method in fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
The Company invoices the government as the units are formally accepted. Deferred revenue arises from amounts received in advance of the culmination of the earnings process and is recognized as revenue in future periods when the applicable revenue recognition criteria have been met.
In fiscal 2018, changes in estimates on contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method on prior year revenues increased defense segment operating income by $2.2 million, net income by $1.7 million and earnings per share by $0.02. In fiscal 2017, changes in estimates on contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method on prior year revenues increased defense segment operating income by $6.3 million, net income by $3.9 million and earnings per share by $0.05. In fiscal 2016, changes in estimates on contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method on prior year revenues did not have a material impact on the defense segment operating income, net income and earnings per share.
Shipping and Handling Fees and Costs — Revenue received from shipping and handling fees is reflected in net sales. Shipping and handling fee revenue was not significant for any period presented. Shipping and handling costs are included in cost of sales.
Warranty — Provisions for estimated warranty and other related costs are recorded in cost of sales at the time of sale and are periodically adjusted to reflect actual experience. The amount of warranty liability accrued reflects management’s best estimate of the expected future cost of honoring Company obligations under the warranty plans. Historically, the cost of fulfilling the Company’s warranty obligations has principally involved replacement parts, labor and sometimes travel for any field retrofit campaigns. The Company’s estimates are based on historical experience, the extent of pre-production testing, the number of units involved and the extent of features/components included in product models. Also, each quarter, the Company reviews actual warranty claims experience to determine if there are systemic defects that would require a field campaign. The Company recognizes the revenue from sales of extended warranties over the life of the contracts.
Research and Development and Similar Costs — Except for customer sponsored research and development costs incurred pursuant to contracts (generally with the DoD), research and development costs are expensed as incurred and included in cost of sales. Research and development costs charged to expense amounted to $99.3 million, $98.0 million and $103.1 million during fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Customer sponsored research and development costs incurred pursuant to contracts are accounted for as contract costs.
Advertising — Advertising costs are included in selling, general and administrative expense and are expensed as incurred. These expenses totaled $21.1 million, $23.0 million and $21.6 million in fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation — The Company recognizes stock-based compensation using the fair value provisions prescribed by Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation. Accordingly, compensation costs for awards of stock-based compensation settled in shares are determined based on the fair value of the share-based instrument at the time of grant and are recognized as expense over the vesting period of the share-based instrument, net of estimated forfeitures. See Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the Company’s stock-based incentive plans.
Debt Financing Costs — Debt issuance costs on term debt are amortized using the interest method over the term of the debt. Deferred financing costs on lines of credit are amortized on a straight-line basis over the term of the related lines of credit. Amortization expense was $5.6 million (including $3.2 million of amortization related to early debt retirement), $3.0 million and $3.0 million in fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Income Taxes — Deferred income taxes are provided to recognize temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the income tax basis of the Company’s assets and liabilities using currently enacted tax rates and laws. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income and tax planning strategies in making this assessment.
The Company evaluates uncertain income tax positions in a two-step process. The first step is recognition, where the Company evaluates whether an individual tax position has a likelihood of greater than 50% of being sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. For tax positions that are currently estimated to have a less than 50% likelihood of being sustained, zero tax benefit is recorded. For tax positions that have met the recognition threshold in the first step, the Company performs the second step of measuring the benefit to be recorded. The actual benefits ultimately realized may differ from the Company’s estimates. In future periods, changes in facts and circumstances and new information may require the Company to change the recognition and measurement estimates with regard to individual tax positions. Changes in recognition and measurement estimates are recorded in results of operations and financial position in the period in which such changes occur.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments — Based on Company estimates, the carrying amounts of cash equivalents, receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximated fair value as of September 30, 2018 and 2017. See Notes 9, 14 and 17 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional fair value information.
Cash and Cash Equivalents — The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents at September 30, 2018 consisted principally of bank deposits and money market instruments.
Receivables — Receivables consist of amounts billed and currently due from customers and unbilled costs and accrued profits related to revenues on long-term contracts with the U.S. government that have been recognized for accounting purposes but not yet billed to customers. The Company extends credit to customers in the normal course of business and maintains an allowance for estimated losses resulting from the inability or unwillingness of customers to make required payments. The accrual for estimated losses is based on the Company’s historical experience, existing economic conditions and any specific customer collection issues the Company has identified. Account balances are charged against the allowance when the Company determines it is probable the receivable will not be recovered.
Concentration of Credit Risk — Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash equivalents, trade accounts receivable and guarantees of certain customers’ obligations under deferred payment contracts and lease purchase agreements.
The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents, and other financial instruments, with various major financial institutions. The Company performs periodic evaluations of the relative credit standing of these financial institutions and limits the amount of credit exposure with any institution.
Concentration of credit risk with respect to trade accounts and lease receivables is limited due to the large number of customers and their dispersion across many geographic areas. However, a significant amount of trade and lease receivables are with the U.S. government, with rental companies globally, with companies in the ready-mix concrete industry, with municipalities and with several large waste haulers in the United States. The Company continues to monitor credit risk associated with its trade receivables.
Inventories — Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost has been determined using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for 82% of the Company’s inventories at both September 30, 2018 and 2017. For the remaining inventories, cost has been determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.
Property, Plant and Equipment — Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation expense is recognized over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets using accelerated and straight-line methods. The estimated useful lives range from ten to forty years for buildings and improvements, from four to twenty-five years for machinery and equipment and from three to ten years for software and related costs. The Company capitalizes interest on borrowings during the active construction period of major capital projects. All capitalized interest has been added to the cost of the underlying assets and is amortized over the useful lives of the assets.
Goodwill — Goodwill reflects the cost of an acquisition in excess of the aggregate fair value assigned to identifiable net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized; however, it is assessed for impairment at least annually and as triggering events or “indicators of potential impairment” occur. The Company performs its annual impairment test as of July 1 of each fiscal year. The Company evaluates the recoverability of goodwill by estimating the fair value of the businesses to which the goodwill relates. Estimated cash flows and related goodwill are grouped at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is an operating segment or, under certain circumstances, a component of an operating segment. When the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit, a further analysis is performed to measure and recognize the amount of the impairment loss, if any. Impairment losses, limited to the carrying value of goodwill, represent the excess of the carrying amount of a reporting unit’s goodwill over the implied fair value of that goodwill.
In evaluating the recoverability of goodwill, it is necessary to estimate the fair value of the reporting units. The Company evaluates the recoverability of goodwill utilizing the income approach and the market approach. The Company weighted the income approach more heavily (75%) as the Company believes the income approach more accurately considers long-term fluctuations in the U.S. and European construction markets than the market approach. Under the income approach, the Company determines fair value based on estimated future cash flows discounted by an estimated weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects the overall level of inherent risk of a reporting unit and the rate of return an outside investor would expect to earn. Estimated future cash flows are based on the Company’s internal projection models, industry projections and other assumptions deemed reasonable by management. Rates used to discount estimated cash flows correspond to the Company’s cost of capital, adjusted for risk where appropriate, and are dependent upon interest rates at a point in time. There are inherent uncertainties related to these factors and management’s judgment in applying them to the analysis of goodwill impairment. Under the market approach, the Company derives the fair value of its reporting units based on revenue and earnings multiples of comparable publicly-traded companies. It is possible that assumptions underlying the impairment analysis will change in such a manner that impairment in value may occur in the future.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets — Property, plant and equipment and amortizable intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If the sum of the expected undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the related asset or group of assets, a loss is recognized for the difference between the fair value and carrying value of the asset or group of assets.
Non-amortizable trade names are assessed for impairment at least annually and as triggering events or “indicators of potential impairment” occur. The Company performs its annual impairment test in the fourth quarter of its fiscal year. The Company evaluates the potential impairment by estimating the fair value of the non-amortizing intangible assets using the “relief from royalty” method. When the fair value of the non-amortizable trade name is less than the carrying value of the trade name, a further analysis is performed to measure and recognize the amount of the impairment loss, if any. Impairment losses, limited to the carrying value of the non-amortizable trade name, represent the excess of the carrying amount over the implied fair value of that non-amortizable trade name.
Customer Advances — Customer advances include amounts received in advance of the completion of fire & emergency and commercial vehicles. Most of these advances bear interest at fixed rates that approximate the prime rate at the time of the advance. Advances also include any performance-based payments received from the DoD in excess of the value of related inventory.
Other Long-Term Liabilities — Other long-term liabilities are comprised principally of the portions of the Company’s pension liability, other post-employment benefit liability, tax liability, accrued warranty and accrued product liability that are not expected to be settled in the subsequent twelve month period.
Foreign Currency Translation — All balance sheet accounts have been translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income statement amounts have been translated using the average exchange rate during the period in which the transactions occurred. Resulting translation adjustments are included in “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).” Foreign currency transaction gains or losses are included in “Miscellaneous, net” in the Consolidated Statements of Income. The Company recorded a net foreign currency transaction loss of $3.8 million in fiscal 2018, a net foreign currency transaction gain of $0.2 million in fiscal 2017 and a net foreign currency transaction loss of $1.2 million in fiscal 2016.
Derivative Financial Instruments — The Company recognizes all derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange contracts, in the consolidated financial statements at fair value regardless of the purpose or intent for holding the instrument. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are either recognized periodically in income or in equity as a component of comprehensive income depending on whether the derivative financial instrument qualifies for hedge accounting, and if so, whether it qualifies as a fair value hedge or cash flow hedge. Generally, changes in fair values of derivatives accounted for as fair value hedges are recorded in income along with the portions of the changes in the fair values of the hedged items that relate to the hedged risks. Changes in fair values of derivatives accounted for as cash flow hedges, to the extent they are effective as hedges, are recorded in other comprehensive income, net of deferred income taxes. Changes in fair value of derivatives not qualifying as hedges are reported in income. Cash flows from derivatives that are accounted for as cash flow or fair value hedges are included in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in the same category as the item being hedged.
Reclassifications — Certain reclassifications have been made to the fiscal 2017 and 2016 financial statements to conform with the fiscal 2018 presentation. “Derivative instruments,” which was previously reported as a separate line item within the Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity, is now reported in “Other.” “Payment of stock-based restricted shares,” which was previously included in “Other” in the Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity, is now reported in “Payment of stock-based restricted and performance shares.” “Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment,” which was previously included in “Other investing activities” in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, is now reported as a separate line item.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements — In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standard Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the FASB has since issued several amendments to this standard, which clarifies the principles for recognizing revenue. This guidance requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard supersedes all existing U.S. GAAP guidance on revenue recognition and is expected to require the use of more judgment and result in additional disclosures. The Company will adopt the standard as of October 1, 2018. The Company has elected to adopt the new revenue recognition standard following the modified retrospective approach, as permitted by the standard. This approach will result in an adjustment to retained earnings for the cumulative effect of initially applying the new standard on its adoption date.
The Company expects to record a pre-tax reduction of retained earnings of approximately $80 million upon the initial adoption of the new revenue recognition standard, which represents the cumulative impact as of the date of adoption. Primary differences between the new and existing revenue standard include changing from a point-in-time method to an over time method for certain defense and commercial segment contracts, changes to how a contract is defined, the recognition of implied performance obligations and the deferral of margin on service-type warranties. The adoption of the new revenue recognition standard will also impact the Company’s processes and controls around revenue recognition.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330), Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. ASU 2015-11 is part of the FASB’s initiative to simplify accounting standards. The guidance requires an entity to recognize inventory within the scope of the standard at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. The Company adopted ASU 2015-11 on October 1, 2017. The adoption of ASU 2015-11 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), and the FASB has since issued amendments to this standard, which requires lessees to reflect most leases on their balance sheet as lease liabilities with a corresponding right-of-use asset, while leaving presentation of lease expense in the statement of income largely unchanged. The standard also eliminates the real-estate specific provisions that exist under current U.S. GAAP and modifies the classification criteria and accounting lessors must apply to sales-type and direct financing leases. The Company will be required to adopt ASU 2016-02 and related amendments to the standard as of October 1, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-02 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The standard requires a change in the measurement approach for credit losses on financial assets measured on an amortized cost basis from an incurred loss method to an expected loss method, thereby eliminating the requirement that a credit loss be considered probable to impact the valuation of a financial asset measured on an amortized cost basis. The standard requires the measurement of expected credit losses to be based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and a reasonable and supportable forecast that affects the collectibility of the related financial asset. The Company will be required to adopt ASU 2016-13 as of October 1, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-13 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740), Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory. The standard requires that an entity recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset when the transfer occurs as opposed to when the asset is transferred to an outside party as required under current U.S. GAAP. The standard does not apply to intra-entity transfers of inventory, which will continue to follow current U.S. GAAP. The Company will adopt ASU 2016-16 as of October 1, 2018 and expects to record an increase to retained earnings of approximately $45 million upon adoption under the modified retrospective approach, primarily related to intra-entity transfers of intellectual property.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350), Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The standard simplifies the measurement of goodwill impairment by eliminating the requirement that an entity compute the implied fair value of goodwill based on the fair values of its assets and liabilities to measure impairment. Instead, goodwill impairment will be measured as the difference between the fair value of the reporting unit and the carrying value of the reporting unit. The standard also clarifies the treatment of the income tax effect of tax deductible goodwill when measuring goodwill impairment loss. The Company will be required to adopt ASU 2017-04 as of October 1, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2017-04 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715), Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. The standard requires that an entity report the service cost component of net periodic pension and postretirement cost in the same line item or items as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period. The remaining components of net benefit costs are required to be presented in the income statement separately from the service component and outside a subtotal of income from operations, if one is presented. The amendment further allows only the service cost component of net periodic pension and postretirement costs to be eligible for capitalization, when applicable. The Company will adopt ASU 2017-07 as of October 1, 2018 following the retrospective approach required by the standard. Adoption is expected to result in the reclassification of approximately $3 million of non-service costs from operating income to other income (expense).
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. The standard more closely aligns hedge accounting with risk management strategies, simplifies the application of hedge accounting, and increases transparency as to the scope and results of hedging programs. The standard expands and refines hedge accounting for both nonfinancial and financial risk components and aligns the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements. The Company adopted ASU 2017-12 on October 1, 2017. The adoption of ASU 2017-12 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement—Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The standard allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, thereby eliminating the resulting stranded tax effect. The Company will be required to adopt ASU 2018-02 as of October 1, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company plans to early adopt ASU 2018-02 as of October 1, 2018 and expects to record an increase to retained earnings of approximately $9 million upon adoption to eliminate the tax effects stranded in accumulated other comprehensive income resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.