Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist primarily of money market funds, commercial paper, and U.S. Government Treasury and Agency instruments with original maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase.
We use the lower of cost or net realizable value to value our inventories, with cost being determined on a first-in, first-out basis. One of the factors we consistently evaluate in the application of this method is the extent to which products are accepted into the marketplace. By policy, we evaluate market acceptance based on known business factors and conditions by comparing forecasted customer unit demand for our products over a specific future period, or demand horizon, to quantities on hand at the end of each accounting period.
On a quarterly and annual basis, we analyze inventories on a part-by-part basis. Product life cycles and the competitive nature of the industry are factors considered in the evaluation of customer unit demand at the end of each quarterly accounting period. Inventory on-hand in excess of forecasted demand is considered to have reduced market value and, therefore, the cost basis is adjusted to the lower of cost or net realizable value. Typically, market values for excess or obsolete inventories are considered to be zero. Inventory charges recorded for excess and obsolete inventory, including scrapped inventory, were $6.2 million and $9.7 million, in fiscal year 2019 and 2018, respectively. Inventory charges in fiscal year 2019 and 2018 related to a combination of quality issues and inventory exceeding demand.
Inventories were comprised of the following (in thousands):
March 30, 2019
March 31, 2018
Work in process
Property, Plant and Equipment, net
Property, plant and equipment is recorded at cost, net of depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization is calculated on a straight-line basis over estimated economic lives, ranging from 3 to 39 years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the term of the lease or the estimated useful life. Furniture, fixtures, machinery, and equipment are all depreciated over a useful life of 3 to 10 years, while buildings are depreciated over a period of up to 39 years. In general, our capitalized software is amortized over a useful life of 3 years, with capitalized enterprise resource planning software being amortized over a useful life of 10 years. Gains or losses related to retirements or dispositions of fixed assets are recognized in the period incurred. Additionally, if impairment indicators exist, the Company will assess the carrying value of the associated asset. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2017, the Company reassessed the carrying value of the property located in Edinburgh, Scotland, resulting in an asset impairment charge of $9.8 million. This property was subsequently sold in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2019 for a $4.9 million gain presented separately in the Consolidated Statements of Income as "Gain on sale of assets".
Property, plant and equipment was comprised of the following (in thousands):
March 30, 2019
March 31, 2018
Furniture and fixtures
Machinery and equipment
Construction in progress
Total property, plant and equipment
Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization
Property, plant and equipment, net
Depreciation and amortization expense on property, plant, and equipment for fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017 was $32.0 million, $27.7 million, and $26.1 million, respectively.
Goodwill and Intangibles, net
Intangible assets include purchased technology licenses and patents that are reported at cost and are amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful lives, generally ranging from 1 to 10 years. Acquired intangibles include existing technology, core technology or patents, license agreements, in-process research & development, trademarks, tradenames, customer relationships, non-compete agreements, and backlog. These assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over lives ranging from 1 to 15 years.
Goodwill is recorded at the time of an acquisition and is calculated as the difference between the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition and the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill and intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are not amortized but are subject to annual impairment tests. The Company tests goodwill and indefinite lived intangibles for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if the Company believes indicators of impairment exist. Impairment evaluations involve management’s assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that goodwill and other intangible assets are impaired. If management concludes from its assessment of qualitative factors that it is more likely than not that impairment exists, then a quantitative impairment test will be performed involving management estimates of asset useful lives and future cash flows. Significant management judgment is required in the forecasts of future operating results that are used in these evaluations. If our actual results, or the plans and estimates used in future impairment analyses, are lower than the original estimates used to assess the recoverability of these assets, we could incur additional impairment charges in a future period. The Company has recorded no goodwill impairments in fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017. There were no material intangible asset impairments in fiscal years 2019, 2018, or 2017.
We test for impairment losses on long-lived assets and definite-lived intangibles used in operations when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the assets’ carrying amounts. We measure any impairment loss by comparing the fair value of the asset to its carrying amount. We estimate fair value based on discounted future cash flows, quoted market prices, or independent appraisals.
Foreign Currency Translation
Some of the Company's subsidiaries utilize the local currency as the functional currency. The Company’s main entities, including the entities that generate the majority of sales and employ the majority of employees, are US dollar functional.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to material concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents, marketable securities, long-term marketable securities, and trade accounts receivable. We are exposed to credit risk to the extent of the amounts recorded on the balance sheet. By policy, our cash equivalents, marketable securities, and long-term marketable securities are subject to certain nationally recognized credit standards, issuer concentrations, sovereign risk, and marketability or liquidity considerations.
In evaluating our trade receivables, we perform credit evaluations of our major customers’ financial condition and monitor closely all of our receivables to limit our financial exposure by limiting the length of time and amount of credit extended. In certain situations, we may require payment in advance or utilize letters of credit to reduce credit risk. By policy, we establish a reserve for trade accounts receivable based on the type of business in which a customer is engaged, the length of time a trade account receivable is outstanding, and other knowledge that we may possess relating to the probability that a trade receivable is at risk for non-payment.
We had three contract manufacturers, Hongfujin Precision, Pegatron, and Foxconn who represented 22 percent, 19 percent, and 11 percent, respectively of our consolidated gross trade accounts receivable as of the end of fiscal year 2019. Pegatron, Jabil Circuits and Hongfujin Precision represented 24 percent, 18 percent, and 11 percent, respectively of our consolidated gross trade accounts receivable as of the end of fiscal year 2018. No other distributor or customer had receivable balances that represented more than 10 percent of consolidated gross trade accounts receivable as of the end of fiscal year 2019 and 2018.
Since the components we produce are largely proprietary and generally not available from second sources, we consider our end customer to be the entity specifying the use of our component in their design. These end customers may then purchase our products directly from us, from a distributor, or through a third-party manufacturer contracted to produce their end product. For fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017, our ten largest end customers represented approximately 91 percent, 92 percent, and 92 percent, of our sales, respectively. For fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017, we had one end customer, Apple Inc., who purchased through multiple contract manufacturers and represented approximately 78 percent, 81 percent, and 79 percent, of the Company’s total sales, respectively. No other customer or distributor represented more than 10 percent of net sales in fiscal years 2019, 2018, or 2017.
We recognize revenue upon the transfer of promised goods or services to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.
The Company’s contracts with customers contain a single performance obligation, which is the delivery of promised goods to the customer. The promised goods are explicitly stated in the customer contract and are comprised of either a single type of good or a series of goods that are substantially the same, have the same pattern of transfer to the customer, and are neither capable of being distinct nor separable from the other promised goods in the contract. This performance obligation is satisfied upon transfer of control of the promised goods to the customer, as defined per the shipping terms within the customer’s contract. The vast majority of the Company’s contracts with customers have an original expected term of one year or less. As allowed by ASC 606, the Company has not disclosed of the value of any unsatisfied performance obligations related to these contracts.
The Company’s products typically include a warranty period of one to three years. These warranties qualify as assurance-type warranties, as goods can be returned for product non-conformance and defect only. As such, these warranties are accounted for under ASC 460, Guarantees, and are not considered a separate performance obligation.
Payments are typically due within 30 to 60 days of invoicing and terms do not include a significant financing component or noncash consideration. There have been no material impairment losses on accounts receivable. There are no material contract assets or contract liabilities recorded on the consolidated balance sheets.
The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods to the customer. Fixed pricing is the consideration that is agreed upon in the customer contract. Variable pricing includes rebates, rights of return, warranties, price protection and stock rotation. Rebates are granted as a customer account credit, based on agreed-upon sales thresholds. Rights of return and warranty costs are estimated using the "most likely amount" method by reviewing historical returns to determine the most likely customer return rate and applying materiality thresholds. Price protection includes price adjustments available to certain distributors based upon established book price and a stated adjustment period. Stock rotation is also available to certain distributors based on a stated maximum of prior billings.
The Company estimates all variable consideration at the most likely amount which it expects to be entitled. The estimate is based on current and historical information available to the Company, including recent sales activity and pricing. Variable consideration is only included in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. The Company defers all variable consideration that does not meet the revenue recognition criteria.
We warrant our products and maintain a provision for warranty repair or replacement of shipped products. The accrual represents management’s estimate of probable returns. Our estimate is based on an analysis of our overall sales volume and historical claims experience. The estimate is re-evaluated periodically for accuracy.
Our shipping and handling costs are included in cost of sales for all periods presented in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs were $1.0 million, $1.4 million, and $1.7 million, in fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
Stock-based compensation is measured at the grant date based on the grant-date fair value of the awards and is recognized as an expense, on a ratable basis, over the vesting period, which is generally between 0 and 4 years. Determining the amount of stock-based compensation to be recorded requires the Company to develop estimates used in calculating the grant-date fair value of stock options and performance awards (also called market stock units). The Company calculates the grant-date fair value for stock options and market stock units using the Black-Scholes valuation model and the Monte Carlo simulation, respectively. The use of valuation models requires the Company to make estimates of assumptions such as expected volatility, expected term, risk-free interest rate, expected dividend yield, and forfeiture rates. The grant-date fair value of restricted stock units is the market value at grant date multiplied by the number of units.
We are required to calculate income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. This process involves calculating the actual current tax liability as well as assessing temporary differences in the recognition of income or loss for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in our Consolidated Balance Sheet. We record a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company evaluates the ability to realize its deferred tax assets based on all the facts and circumstances, including projections of future taxable income and expiration dates of carryover tax attributes.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves assessing uncertainties with respect to the application of complex tax rules and the potential for future adjustment of our uncertain tax positions by the Internal Revenue Service or other taxing jurisdiction. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the required two-step process. The first step requires us to determine if the weight of available evidence indicates that the tax position has met the threshold for recognition; therefore, we must evaluate whether it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. The second step requires us to measure the tax benefit of the tax position taken, or expected to be taken, in an income tax return as the largest amount that is more than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We reevaluate the uncertain tax positions each quarter based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, expirations of statutes of limitation, effectively settled issues under audit, and new audit activity. A change in the recognition step or measurement step would result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision in the period.
Although we believe the measurement of our liabilities for uncertain tax positions is reasonable, we cannot assure that the final outcome of these matters will not be different than what is reflected in the historical income tax provisions and accruals. If additional taxes are assessed as a result of an audit or litigation, it could have a material effect on our income tax provision and net income in the period or periods for which that determination is made. We operate within multiple taxing jurisdictions and are subject to audit in these jurisdictions. These audits can involve complex issues which may require an extended period of time to resolve and could result in additional assessments of income tax. We believe adequate provisions for income taxes have been made for all periods.
Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is based on the weighted effect of common shares issued and outstanding and is calculated by dividing net income by the basic weighted average shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares used in the basic net income per share calculation, plus the equivalent number of common shares that would be issued assuming exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive common shares outstanding. These potentially dilutive items consist primarily of outstanding stock options and restricted stock grants.
The following table details the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share for fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017, (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Fiscal Years Ended
March 30, 2019
March 31, 2018
March 25, 2017
Weighted average shares outstanding
Effect of dilutive securities
Weighted average diluted shares
Basic earnings per share
Diluted earnings per share
The weighted outstanding shares excluded from our diluted calculation for the years ended March 30, 2019, March 31, 2018, and March 25, 2017 were 872 thousand, 326 thousand, and 389 thousand, respectively, as the exercise price of certain outstanding stock options exceeded the average market price during the period.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Our accumulated other comprehensive loss is comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments, unrealized gains and losses on investments classified as available-for-sale and actuarial gains and losses on our defined benefit pension plan assets, prior to plan settlement in fiscal year 2019. See Note 14 — Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss for additional discussion.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC Topic 606). The purpose of this ASU is to converge revenue recognition requirements per U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”). The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date after public comment supported a proposal to delay the effective date of this ASU to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. The Company completed the process of reviewing our customers’ contracts in respect of performance obligation identification and satisfaction, pricing, warranties, and return rights, among other considerations, in the first quarter of fiscal year 2019. According to the standard, the Company could adopt by full retrospective method, which applies retrospectively to each prior period presented, or by modified retrospective method with the cumulative effect adjustment recognized in beginning retained earnings as of the date of adoption. The Company adopted this standard using the modified retrospective adoption method in the first quarter of fiscal year 2019 with no income statement impact, and therefore no beginning retained earnings impact. See Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Revenue Recognition within this footnote as well as Note 8 - Revenues for additional details.
The effects of the changes made to our balance sheet at adoption were as follows (in thousands):
Balance at March 31, 2018
Impact from ASU 2014-09 Adoption
Balance at April 1, 2018
Financial statement line item:
Other current assets
Other accrued liabilities
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The FASB issued this update to increase transparency and comparability by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key leasing arrangement details. Lessees would recognize operating leases on the balance sheet under this ASU - with the future lease payments recognized as a liability, measured at present value, and the right-of-use (“ROU”) asset recognized for the lease term. A single lease cost would be recognized over the lease term. For initial terms of less than twelve months, a lessee would be permitted to make an accounting policy election to recognize lease expense for such leases generally on a straight-line basis over the lease term. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The modified retrospective approach was previously the only allowed adoption method.
In July 2018, the FASB issued the related ASU 2018-10 - Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements. This ASU offers a new transition adoption method, which will not require adjustments to comparative periods. The Company adopted using the latter method in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020. The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. We elected the use-of-hindsight practical expedient and the ‘package of practical expedients’ which permits us not to reassess under the new standard our prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. We elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for qualifying leases, typically those with terms of less than twelve months, we will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities. We also do not separate lease and non-lease components for all classes of assets. Most of our operating lease commitments were subject to the new standard and recognized as right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities upon adoption, which will materially increase the total assets and total liabilities that we report relative to such amounts prior to adoption of this ASU.
On adoption, we recognized additional operating liabilities of approximately $158.0 million, with corresponding ROU assets based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing contracts for existing operating leases. In addition, existing capitalized initial direct costs of $2.8 million and accrued lease payments of $11.1 million were reclassified from prepayments and accruals to the ROU asset, resulting in a ROU asset of $149.7 million. There was no income statement impact on adoption.
In applying the use-of-hindsight practical expedient, we re-assessed whether we were reasonably certain to exercise extension options within our lease agreements. This resulted in the lease term being extended on a number of leases. The previously capitalized initial direct costs and lease creditor were recalculated assuming these extended lease terms had always applied, resulting in an adjustment of $1.0 million to opening retained earnings on transition.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU requires credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities to be presented as an allowance rather than a write-down. Unlike current U.S. GAAP, the credit losses could be reversed with changes in estimates, and recognized in current year earnings. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU, but does not expect a material impact to the financial statements upon adoption.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles — Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This ASU eliminates step two of the goodwill impairment test. An impairment charge is to be recognized for the amount by which the current value exceeds the fair value. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods. Early adoption is permitted, for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017, and should be applied prospectively. An entity is required to disclose the nature of and reason for the change in accounting principle upon transition. That disclosure should be provided in the first annual period and in the interim period within the first annual period when the entity initially adopts the amendments in this update. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU, but does not expect a material impact to the financial statements upon adoption.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. This ASU requires an employer to disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net benefit cost. It also provides guidance on income statement presentation for service cost and other components of net benefit cost. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods. The Company adopted this ASU in the first quarter of fiscal year 2019. The impact of adoption included the buy-out settlement of the defined benefit pension plan as discussed in Note 9.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This ASU applies to any company that changes the terms or conditions of a share-based award, considered a modification. Modification accounting would be applied unless certain conditions were met related to the fair value of the award, the vesting conditions and the classification of the modified award. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The standard should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. The Company adopted this ASU in the first quarter of fiscal year 2019 with no financial statement impact as no awards were modified in the current period.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. This ASU allows for the classification of stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The standard should be applied in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period (or periods) in which the effect of the change in tax rate is recognized. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU, but does not expect a material impact to the financial statements upon adoption.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This ASU expands the scope of Topic 718 to include all share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees and will apply to all share-based payment transactions in which the grantor acquires goods and services to be used or consumed in its own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. The Company intends to adopt this guidance in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020, but does not expect a material impact to the financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. This ASU adjusts current required disclosures related to fair value measurements. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU, but does not expect a material impact to the financial statements.
In August 2018, the Commission adopted the final rule under SEC Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, amending certain disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded. In addition, the amendments expanded the disclosure requirements on the analysis of stockholders' equity for interim financial statements. Under the amendments, an analysis of changes in each caption of stockholders' equity presented in the balance sheet must be provided in a note or separate statement. The analysis should present a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance of each period for which a statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed. The final rule was published in the Federal Register on October 4, 2018, effective November 5, 2018. The additional disclosure is not required until the quarterly filing covering the period beginning after the effective date of the amendments, which will be the Company's first quarter fiscal year 2020 filing. The Company is evaluating the impact of this guidance on its financial statements, but does not expect a material impact to the financial statements upon adoption.