Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. As used in these notes, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Kopin” and the “Company” mean Kopin Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates another meaning.
The Company has incurred net losses of $35.8 million, $25.4 million and $23.0 million for the fiscal years ended 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and net cash outflows from operations of $28.2 million, $25.9 million and $26.2 million for the fiscal years ended 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. In addition, the Company has continued to experience a significant decline in its cash and cash equivalents and marketable debt securities, which was primarily a result of funding operating losses, of which a significant component relates to the Company’s ongoing investments in the research and development of Wearable products. These negative financial conditions raise substantial doubt regarding the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The Company’s products are targeted towards the wearable market, which management believes is still developing and cannot predict how long the wearable market will take to develop or if the Company’s products will be accepted. Accordingly, the Company’s current strategy is to continue to invest in research and development, even during unprofitable periods, which may result in the Company continuing to incur net losses and negative cash flows from operations. If the Company is unable to achieve and maintain positive cash flows and profitability in the foreseeable future, its financial condition may ultimately be materially adversely affected such that management may be required to reduce operating expenses, including investments in research and development, or raise additional capital. While there can be no assurance the Company will be able to successfully reduce operating expenses or raise additional capital, management believes its historical success in managing cash flows and obtaining capital will continue in the foreseeable future.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. These financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
The Company’s fiscal year ends on the last Saturday in December. The fiscal years ended December 29, 2018 and December 30, 2017 includes 52 weeks and December 31, 2016 includes 53 weeks, and are referred to as fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, herein. The impact of the 53rd week in the 2016 fiscal year was not material to the Company's results of operations.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly owned subsidiaries and a majority owned 80% subsidiary, eMDT America Inc. ("eMDT"), located in California (collectively the Company). Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest in the Company's Consolidated Statement of Operations represents the portion of the results of operations of which is allocated to the shareholders of the equity interests not owned by the Company. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Revenue Recognition - 2018
The Company adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) effective December 31, 2017 and applied the modified retrospective method. The Company recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. The Company expects the impact of the adoption of the new standard to be material to the Company's results of operations on an ongoing basis. Significant changes to the Company's accounting policies as a result of adopting Topic 606 are discussed below.
Substantially all of our product revenues are either derived from the sales of components for use in military applications or our wearable technology components that can be integrated to create industrial and consumer headset systems. We also have development contracts for the design, manufacture and modification of products for the U.S. government or a prime contractor for the U.S. government or for a customer that sells into the industrial or consumer markets. The Company's contracts with the U.S. government are typically subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulations (“FAR”) and are priced based on estimated or actual costs of producing goods. The FAR provides guidance on the types of costs that are allowable in establishing prices for goods provided under U.S. government contracts. The pricing for non-U.S. government contracts is based on the specific negotiations with each customer.
Our fixed-price contracts with the U.S. government or other customers may result in revenue recognized in excess of amounts currently billed. We disclose the excess of revenues over amounts actually billed as Contract assets and unbilled receivables on the balance sheet. Amounts billed and due from our customers are classified as Accounts receivable on the balance sheets. In some instances, the U.S. government retains a small portion of the contract price until completion of the contract. The portion of the payments retained until final contract settlement is not considered a significant financing component because the intent is to protect the customer. For contracts with the U.S. government, we typically receive interim payments either as work progresses or by achieving certain milestones or based on a schedule in the contract. We recognize a liability for these advance payments in excess of revenue recognized and present it as Contract liabilities and billings in excess of revenue earned on the balance sheets. The advanced payment typically is not considered a significant financing component because it is used to meet working capital demands that can be higher in the early stages of a contract and to protect us from the other party failing to adequately complete some or all of its obligations under the contract. For industrial and consumer purchase orders, we typically receive payments within 30 to 60 days of shipments of the product, although for some purchase orders, we may require an advanced payment prior to shipment of the product.
To determine the proper revenue recognition method for contracts with the same customer, we evaluate whether two or more contracts should be combined and accounted for as one single contract and whether the combined or single contract should be accounted for as more than one performance obligation. For most of our development contracts and contracts with the U.S government, the customer contracts with us to provide a significant service of integrating a set of components into a single unit. Hence, the entire contract is accounted for as one performance obligation. Less frequently, however, we may promise to provide distinct goods or services within a contract in which case we separate the contract into more than one performance obligation. If a contract is separated into more than one performance obligation, we allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation in an amount based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or services underlying each performance obligation. In cases where we sell standard products, the observable standalone sales are used to determine the standalone selling price.
The Company recognizes revenue from a contract when it has approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
Commencing in 2018 for certain contracts with the U.S. government, the Company recognizes revenue over time as we perform because of continuous transfer of control to the customer and the lack of an alternative use for the product. The continuous transfer of control to the customer is supported by liability clauses in the contract that allow the U.S. government to unilaterally terminate the contract for convenience, pay us for costs incurred plus a reasonable profit and take control of any work in process. For contracts with commercial customers, while the contract may have a similar liability clause, our products historically have an alternative use and thus, revenue is recognized at a point in time.
In situations where control transfers over time, revenue is recognized based on the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation. We generally use the cost-to-cost approach to measure the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation for our contracts because we believe it best depicts the transfer of assets to the customer. Under the cost-to-cost measure approach, the extent of progress towards completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the total estimated costs at completion of the performance obligation. Revenues are recorded proportionally as costs are incurred.
Accounting for design, development and production contracts requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract revenues and costs, and making assumptions for schedule and technical issues. Due to the size and nature of the work required to be performed on many of our contracts, the estimation of total revenue and cost at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. Contract costs include material, labor and subcontracting costs, as well as an allocation of indirect costs. We have to make assumptions regarding the number of labor hours required to complete a task, the complexity of the work to be performed, the availability and cost of materials, and performance by our subcontractors. For contract change orders, claims or similar items, we apply judgment in estimating the amounts and assessing the potential for realization. These amounts are only included in contract value when they can be reliably estimated and realization is considered probable. If our estimate of total contract costs or our determination of whether the customer agrees that a milestone is achieved is incorrect, our revenue could be overstated or understated and the profits or loss reported could be subject to adjustment.
For our commercial customers, the Company's revenue is recognized when obligations under the terms of a contract with our customer is satisfied and the Company transfers control of the products or services, which is generally upon delivery to the customer. Revenue is recorded as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. Provisions for product returns and allowances are reductions in the transaction price and are recorded in the same period as the related revenues. We analyze historical returns, current economic trends and changes in customer demand when evaluating the adequacy of sales returns and other allowances. Certain product sales are made to distributors under agreements allowing for a limited right of return on unsold products. Sales to distributors are primarily made for sales to the distributors' customers and not for stocking of inventory. Sales, value add and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue.
The rights and benefits to the Company's intellectual property are conveyed to certain customers through technology license agreements. These agreements may include other performance obligations including the sale of product to the customer. When the license is distinct from other obligations in the agreement, the Company treats the license and other performance obligations as separate performance obligations. Accordingly, the license is recognized at a point in time or over time based on the standalone selling price. The sale of materials is recognized at a point in time, which occurs with the transfer of control of the Company's products or services. In certain instances, the Company is entitled to sales-based royalties under license agreements. These sales-based royalties are recognized when they are earned. Revenues from sales-based royalties under license agreements are shown under Research and development and other revenues on the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The cumulative effect of the changes made to the Company's consolidated December 31, 2017 balance sheet for the adoption of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) was as follows:
Balance at December 30, 2017
Adjustments due to Topic 606
Balance at December 31, 2017
Contract assets and unbilled receivables
Contract liabilities and billings in excess of revenue earned
In accordance with the new revenue standard requirements, the impact of adoption on the Company's consolidated statement of operations for the fiscal year 2018 was as follows:
Statement of Operations
Balances Without Adoption of
Effect of Change Higher/(Lower)
Net product revenues
Research and development and other revenues
Cost of product revenues
Net loss attributable to Kopin Corporation
See Note 14. Segments and Disaggregation of Revenue for additional information regarding the disaggregation of the Company's revenue by major source.
Contract assets include unbilled amounts typically resulting from sales under contracts when the cost-to-cost method of revenue recognition is utilized and revenue recognized from customer arrangements, including licensing, exceeds the amount billed to the customer, and right to payment is not just subject to the passage of time. Amounts may not exceed their net realizable value. Contract assets are generally classified as current. The Company classifies the noncurrent portion of contract assets under other assets in its condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Contract liabilities consist of advance payments and billings in excess of revenue recognized for the contract.
The Company's revenue recognition related to performance obligations that were satisfied at a point in time and over time were as follows:
Fiscal year ended
Point in time
The value of remaining performance obligations represent the transaction price of orders for which work has not been performed and excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity ("IDIQ")). As of December 29, 2018, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations was $8.0 million. The Company expects to recognize revenue on the remaining performance obligations of $8.0 million over the next 12 months. The remaining performance obligations represent amounts to be earned under government contracts, which are subject to cancellation.
Revenue Recognition - 2017
We recognize revenue if four basic criteria have been met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred and services rendered; (3) the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. We do not recognize revenue for products prior to customer acceptance unless we believe the product meets all customer specifications and has a history of consistently achieving customer acceptance of the product. Provisions for product returns and allowances are recorded in the same period as the related revenues. We analyze historical returns, current economic trends and changes in customer demand and acceptance of product when evaluating the adequacy of sales returns and other allowances. Certain product sales are made to distributors under agreements allowing for a limited right of return on unsold products. Sales to distributors are primarily made for sales to the distributors' customers and not for stocking of inventory. We delay revenue recognition for our estimate of distributor claims of right of return on unsold products based upon our historical experience with our products and specific analysis of amounts subject to return based upon discussions with our distributors or their customers.
We recognize revenues from long-term research and development government contracts on the percentage-of-completion method of accounting as work is performed, based upon the ratio of costs or hours already incurred to the estimated total cost of completion or hours of work to be performed. Revenue recognized at any point in time is limited to the amount funded by the U.S. government or contracting entity. We recognize revenue for product development and research contracts that have established prices for distinct phases when delivery and acceptance of the deliverable for each phase has occurred. In some instances, we are contracted to create a deliverable which is anticipated to go into full production. In those cases, we discontinue the percentage-of-completion method after formal qualification of the deliverable has been completed and revenue is then recognized based on the criteria established for sale of products. In certain instances, qualification may be achieved and delivery of production units may commence however our customer may have either identified new issues to be resolved or wish to incorporate a newer display technology. In these circumstances new units delivered will continue to be accounted for under the criteria established for sale of products. Under certain of our research and development contracts, we recognize revenue using a milestone methodology. This revenue is recognized when we achieve specified milestones based on our past performance.
We classify amounts earned on contracts in progress that are in excess of amounts billed as unbilled receivables and we classify amounts received in excess of amounts earned as billings in excess of revenues earned. We invoice based on dates specified in the related agreement or in periodic installments based upon our invoicing cycle. We recognize the entire amount of an estimated ultimate loss in our financial statements at the time the loss on a contract becomes known.
Accounting for design, development and production contracts requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract revenues and costs, and making assumptions for schedule and technical issues. Due to the size and nature of the work required to be performed on many of our contracts, the estimation of total revenue and cost at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. Contract costs include material, labor and subcontracting costs, as well as an allocation of indirect costs. We have to make assumptions regarding the number of labor hours required to complete a task, the complexity of the work to be performed, the availability and cost of materials, and performance by our subcontractors. For contract change orders, claims or similar items, we apply judgment in estimating the amounts and assessing the potential for realization. These amounts are only included in contract value when they can be reliably estimated and realization is considered probable. We have accounting policies in place to address these as well as other contractual and business arrangements to properly account for long-term contracts. If our estimate of total contract costs or our determination of whether the customer agrees that a milestone is achieved is incorrect, our revenue could be overstated and profits would be negatively impacted.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development expenses are incurred in support of internal display product development programs or programs funded by agencies or prime contractors of the U.S. government and commercial partners. Research and development costs include staffing, purchases of materials and laboratory supplies, circuit design costs, fabrication and packaging of experimental display products, and overhead, and are expensed immediately.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid, short-term debt instruments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Inventories are stated at standard cost adjusted to approximate the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. The Company adjusts inventory carrying value for estimated obsolescence equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. The Company fully reserves for inventories and non-cancellable purchase orders for inventory deemed obsolete. The Company performs periodic reviews of inventory items to identify excess inventories on hand by comparing on-hand balances to anticipated usage using recent historical activity as well as anticipated or forecasted demand. If estimates of customer demand diminish further or market conditions become less favorable than those projected by the Company, additional inventory adjustments may be required.
We regularly review inventory quantities on-hand and we write down inventory based on excess or obsolete inventories determined primarily by future anticipated demand for our products. Inventory write-downs are measured as the difference between the cost of the inventory and net realizable value, based upon assumptions about future demand, which are inherently difficult to assess and dependent on market conditions. At the point of a loss recognition, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established basis.
Inventory consists of the following at December 29, 2018 and December 30, 2017:
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation and amortization are provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally 3 to 10 years. Leasehold improvements and leased equipment are amortized over the shorter of the term of the lease or the useful life of the improvement or equipment. As discussed below, obligations for asset retirement are accrued at the time property, plant and equipment is initially purchased or as such obligations are generated from use.
The Company evaluates whether an arrangement is a collaborative arrangement under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements, at its inception based on the facts and circumstances specific to the arrangement. The Company also reevaluates whether an arrangement qualifies or continues to qualify as a collaborative arrangement whenever there is a change in either the roles of the participants or the participants’ exposure to significant risks and rewards dependent on the ultimate commercial success of the endeavor. For those collaborative arrangements where it is determined that the Company is the principal participant, costs incurred and revenue generated from third parties are recorded on a gross basis in the financial statements.
From time to time, the Company enters into collaborative arrangements for the research and development, manufacture and/or commercialization of products. The Company’s collaboration agreements with third parties are performed on a ‘‘best efforts’’ basis with no guarantee of either technological or commercial success.
The Company generally sells products with a limited warranty of product quality and a limited indemnification of customers against intellectual property infringement claims related to the Company’s products. The Company accrues for known warranty and indemnification issues if a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated, and accrues for estimated incurred but unidentified issues based on historical activity. Accrued warranty costs and warranty claims are not material in the periods presented.
The Company recognizes revenue from an extended warranty on the straight-line method over the life of the extended warranty, which is typically 12 to 18 months beyond the standard 12 month warranty. The Company classifies the current portion of extended warranties under contract liabilities and billings in excess of revenue earned and the noncurrent portion of extended warranties under contract liabilities, noncurrent in its consolidated balance sheets. The Company currently has approximately $0.4 million of contract liabilities related to extended warranties at December 29, 2018.
Asset Retirement Obligations
The Company recorded asset retirement obligations ("ARO") liabilities of $0.3 million at December 29, 2018 and December 30, 2017. This represents the legal obligations associated with retirement of the Company’s assets when the timing and/or method of settling the obligation are conditional on a future event that may or may not be within the control of the Company. Changes in ARO liabilities for fiscal years 2018 and 2017 are as follows:
Exchange rate change
The consolidated financial statements reflect provisions for federal, state, local and foreign income taxes. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis, as well as operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The Company measures deferred tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences and carryforwards are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company provides valuation allowances if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. operations where the functional currency is other than the U.S. dollar are translated from the functional currency into U.S. dollars at year end exchange rates, and revenues and expenses are translated at average rates prevailing during the year. Resulting translation adjustments are accumulated as part of accumulated other comprehensive income. Transaction gains or losses are recognized in income or loss in the period in which they occur.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed using the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period less any unvested restricted shares. Diluted net loss per share is calculated using weighted-average shares outstanding and contingently issuable shares, less weighted-average shares reacquired during the period. The net outstanding shares are adjusted for the dilutive effect of shares issuable upon the assumed conversion of the Company’s common stock equivalents, which consist of outstanding stock options and unvested restricted stock.
The following were not included in weighted-average common shares outstanding-diluted because they are anti-dilutive or performance conditions have not been met at the end of the period:
Nonvested restricted common stock
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk other than marketable securities consist principally of trade accounts receivable. Trade receivables are primarily derived from sales to manufacturers of consumer electronic devices and wireless components or military applications. The Company sells its products to customers worldwide and generally does not require collateral. The Company maintains a reserve for potential credit losses.
The Company primarily invests its excess cash in government backed and corporate debt securities that management believes to be of high credit worthiness, which bear lower levels of relative credit risk. The Company relies on rating agencies to ascertain the credit worthiness of its marketable securities and, where applicable, guarantees made by the Federal Deposit Insurance Company.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Financial instruments consist of marketable debt securities, accounts receivable and certain current liabilities. These assets (excluding marketable securities which are recorded at fair value) and liabilities are carried at cost, which approximates fair value.
Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Liabilities
We periodically make equity investments in private companies, accounted for as an equity investment, whose values are difficult to determine. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Liabilities and the related amendments on December 31, 2017. This standard amends various aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The Company adopted the measurement alternative for equity investments without readily determinable fair values (often referred to as cost method investments) on a prospective basis. When assessing investments in private companies for impairment, we consider such factors as, among other things, the share price from the investee's latest financing round, the performance of the investee in relation to its own operating targets and its business plan, the investee's revenue and cost trends, the liquidity and cash position, including its cash burn rate and market acceptance of the investee's products and services. Because these are private companies which we do not control we may not be able to obtain all of the information we would want in order to make a complete assessment of the investment on a timely basis. Accordingly, our estimates may be revised if other information becomes available at a later date.
Marketable Debt Securities
Marketable debt securities consist primarily of commercial paper, medium-term corporate notes, and U.S. government and agency backed securities. The Company classifies these marketable debt securities as available-for-sale at fair value in “Marketable debt securities, at fair value”. The Company's investment in GCS Holdings is included in "Other Assets" as available-for-sale and at fair value. The Company records the amortization of premium and accretion of discounts on marketable debt securities in the results of operations.
The Company uses the specific identification method as a basis for determining cost and calculating realized gains and losses with respect to marketable debt securities. The gross gains and losses realized related to sales and maturities of marketable debt securities were not material during the fiscal years ended 2018, 2017 and 2016.
The Company conducts a review of its marketable debt securities on a quarterly basis for the presence of other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI"). The Company assesses whether OTTI is present when the fair value of a debt security is less than its amortized cost basis at the balance sheet date. Under these circumstances OTTI is considered to have occurred (1) if the Company intends to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis; (2) if it is “more likely than not” the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis; or (3) the present value of expected cash flows is not sufficient to recover the entire amortized cost basis.
The Company further estimates the amount of OTTI resulting from a decline in the creditworthiness of the issuer (credit-related OTTI) and the amount of non credit-related OTTI. Non credit-related OTTI can be caused by such factors as market illiquidity. Credit-related OTTI is recognized in earnings while non credit-related OTTI on securities not expected to be sold is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss). The Company did not record any OTTI for the fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016.
The fair value of nonvested restricted common stock awards is generally the quoted price of the Company’s equity shares on the date of grant. The nonvested restricted common stock awards require the employee to fulfill certain obligations, including remaining employed by the Company for one, two or four years (the vesting period) and in certain cases also require meeting either performance criteria or market condition. The performance criteria primarily consist of the achievement of established milestones. For nonvested restricted common stock awards which solely require the recipient to remain employed with the Company, the stock compensation expense is amortized over the anticipated service period. For nonvested restricted common stock awards which require the achievement of performance criteria, the Company reviews the probability of achieving the performance goals on a periodic basis. If the Company determines that it is probable that the performance criteria will be achieved, the amount of compensation cost derived for the performance goal is amortized over the service period. If the performance criteria are not met, no compensation cost is recognized and any previously recognized compensation cost is reversed. The Company recognizes compensation costs on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for time vested awards.
The value of restricted stock grants that vest based on market conditions is computed on the date of grant using the Monte Carlo model. The fair value of stock option awards is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model. There were no stock options granted in fiscal years 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Comprehensive loss is the total of net (loss) income and all other non-owner changes in equity including such items as unrealized holding (losses) gains on marketable equity and debt securities classified as available-for-sale and foreign currency translation adjustments.
The components of accumulated other comprehensive income are as follows:
Unrealized holding (loss) gain on marketable securities
Reclassifications of gain (loss) in net loss
Balance as of December 26, 2015
Changes during year
Balance as of December 31, 2016
Changes during year
Balance as of December 30, 2017
Changes during year
Balance as of December 29, 2018
We account for goodwill in accordance with ASC Topic 350. Under ASC Topic 350, goodwill is considered to have an indefinite life, and is carried at cost. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to an annual impairment test, as well as between annual tests when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
The determination of reporting units under ASC 350 begins with the definition of an operating segment in ASC 280 and takes into account the disaggregation of that operating segment into economically dissimilar components for goodwill impairment testing purposes. The level at which operating performance is reviewed also differs between ASC 280 and ASC 350. The chief operating decision maker ("CODM") is the Company's Chief Executive Officer who reviews operating segments and the segment manager reviews reporting units (components of operating segments). Therefore, a component of an operating segment would not be considered an operating segment under ASC 280 unless the CODM regularly reviews its operating performance. However, that same component might be a reporting unit under ASC 350 if a segment manager regularly reviews its operating performance (and if the other reporting unit criteria are met). Goodwill is evaluated for impairment annually or more often if indicators of a potential impairment are present. The Company performs impairment tests of goodwill at its reporting unit level. The goodwill valuations that are utilized to test these assets for impairment are depending on a number of significant estimates and assumptions, including macroeconomic conditions, overall growth rates, competitive activities, cost containment, Company business plans and the discount rate applied to cash flows. We believe these estimates and assumptions are reasonable and are comparable to those that would be used by other market participants. However, actual events and results could differ substantially from those used in our valuations. To the extent such factors result in a failure to achieve the level of projected cash flows initially used to estimate fair value for purposes of establishing the carrying amount of goodwill and intangibles, we may need to record non-cash impairment charges in the future.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically reviews the carrying value of its long-lived assets to determine if facts and circumstances suggest that they may be impaired or that the amortization or depreciation period may need to be changed. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired when the anticipated identifiable undiscounted cash flows from such asset are less than its carrying value. For assets that are to be held and used, impairment is measured based upon the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and lease liability for most lease arrangements. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which allows for an additional transition method under the modified retrospective approach for the adoption of Topic 842. The two permitted transition methods are now: (1) to apply the new lease requirements at the beginning of the earliest period presented, and (2) to apply the new lease requirements at the effective date. Under both transition methods there is a cumulative effect adjustment. We intend to adopt the standard on the effective date of December 30, 2018 by applying the new lease requirements at the effective date. We also intend to elect the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which, among other things, allows us to carry forward the historical lease classification. We have evaluated the changes from this ASU to our future financial reporting and disclosures, and have designed and implemented related processes and controls to address these changes. We expect the standard will result in the recognition of right-of-use assets of $3.5 million to $4.0 million and lease liabilities of $3.5 million to $4.0 million as of December 30, 2018, with immaterial changes to other balance sheet accounts. The standard will have no impact on our results of operations or liquidity. In addition, new disclosures will be provided to enable users to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases.
Other new pronouncements issued but not effective until after December 29, 2018 are not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or liquidity.