|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Financial statement preparation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements (“financial statements”) of TrueBlue, Inc. (the “company,” “TrueBlue,” “we,” “us,” and “our”) are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission for interim financial information. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures usually found in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted. The financial statements reflect all adjustments which, in the opinion of management, are necessary to fairly state the financial statements for the interim periods presented. We follow the same accounting policies for preparing both quarterly and annual financial statements.
These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 30, 2018. The results of operations for the thirteen and twenty-six weeks ended June 30, 2019, are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year or for any other fiscal period.
Certain immaterial prior year amounts have been reclassified within current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows to conform to current year presentation.
We conduct our branch office operations from leased locations. We also lease office spaces for our centralized support functions, vehicles and equipment. Many leases require variable payments of property taxes, insurance, and common area maintenance, in addition to base rent. The variable portion of these lease payments is not included in our right-of-use assets or lease liabilities. Rather, variable payments, other than those dependent upon an index or rate, are expensed when the obligation for those payments is incurred and are included in lease expense in selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. The terms of our lease agreements generally range from three to five years, some containing options to renew or cancel. We determine if an arrangement meets the definition of a lease at inception, at which time we also perform an analysis to determine whether the lease qualifies as operating or financing.
Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease current and long-term liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, and is included in SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Financing leases are included in property and equipment, net, other current liabilities, and other long-term liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Lease expense for financing leases is recognized as depreciation of the right-of-use asset and interest expense.
Lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are measured using the present value of future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. The right-of-use asset also includes any lease payments made on or before the commencement date of the lease, less any lease incentives received. As the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable in our leases, we use our incremental borrowing rates based on the information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The incremental borrowing rates used are estimated based on what we would be required to pay for a collateralized loan over a similar term. We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are accounted for as a single lease component.
For leases with an initial non-cancelable lease term of less than one year and no option to purchase, we have elected not to recognize the lease on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and instead recognize rent payments on a straight-line basis over the lease term in SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. In addition, for those leases where the right to cancel the lease is available to both TrueBlue (as the lessee) and the lessor, the lease term is the initial non-cancelable period plus the notice period, which is typically 90 days, and not greater than one year.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment on an annual basis as of the first day of our fiscal second quarter, and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition, client engagement, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. We monitor the existence of potential impairment indicators throughout the fiscal year. We test for goodwill impairment at the reporting unit level. We consider our operating segments to be our reporting units for goodwill impairment testing. Our operating segments are PeopleReady, Centerline, Staff Management, SIMOS, PeopleScout, and PeopleScout MSP. The impairment test involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value reflects the price a market participant would be willing to pay in a potential sale of the reporting unit. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, we conclude that no goodwill impairment has occurred. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we recognize an impairment loss in an amount equal to the excess, not to exceed the carrying value of the goodwill.
Determining the fair value of a reporting unit involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions to evaluate the impact of operational and macroeconomic changes on each reporting unit. The fair value of each reporting unit is a weighted average of the income and market valuation approaches. The income approach applies a fair value methodology based on discounted cash flows. This analysis requires significant estimates and judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur, and determination of our weighted average cost of capital, which is risk-adjusted to reflect the specific risk profile of the reporting unit being tested. We also apply a market approach, which identifies similar publicly traded companies and develops a correlation, referred to as a multiple, to apply to the operating results of the reporting units. The primary market multiples to which we compare are revenue and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. The income and market approaches were equally weighted in our most recent annual impairment test. We base fair value estimates on assumptions we believe to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and inherently uncertain. Actual future results may differ from those estimates. We consider a reporting unit’s fair value to be substantially in excess of its carrying value at a 20% premium or greater.
Based on our 2019 annual impairment test, the estimated fair value of our SIMOS reporting unit was in excess of its carrying value of $35 million by approximately 10%. There are two key clients that individually account for more than 10% of revenue for the SIMOS reporting unit. For each client we service multiple sites. The loss of a key client, or a significant number of key sites, could give rise to an impairment. Should any one of these events occur, we may need to record an impairment loss to goodwill for the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the reporting unit's fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill. We will continue to closely monitor the operational performance of this reporting unit. All other reporting units’ fair values were substantially in excess of their respective carrying values. Accordingly, there was no impairment loss recognized for the twenty-six weeks ended June 30, 2019.
Recently adopted accounting standards
Intangibles-goodwill and other-internal-use software
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued new guidance on accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract. The standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). Previously, we expensed the cost of internal development labor as incurred.
The new guidance now requires these costs be capitalized with the related amortization recorded in SG&A expense. In addition, capitalized development costs are required to be recorded as a prepaid asset rather than a fixed asset, and license fees incurred during the development period are expensed as incurred.
The standard is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We elected to early adopt this new standard prospectively as of the first day of our fiscal first quarter in 2019. There was no impact on our consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
In February 2016, the FASB issued guidance on lease accounting. The new guidance continues to classify leases as either finance or operating, but results in the lessee recognizing most operating leases on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. This guidance was effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018 (Q1 2019 for TrueBlue), with early adoption permitted. In July 2018, the FASB amended the standard to provide transition relief for comparative reporting, allowing companies to adopt the provisions of the new standard using a modified retrospective transition method on the adoption date, with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings recorded on the date of adoption. We have elected to adopt the standard using the transition relief provided in the July amendment. In preparation for adoption of the standard, we have implemented internal controls and key system functionality to enable the preparation of financial information.
We have elected the three practical expedients allowed for implementation of the new standard, but have not utilized the hindsight practical expedient. Accordingly, we did not reassess: 1) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases; 2) the lease classification for any expired or existing leases; 3) initial direct costs for any existing leases. We have also elected the practical expedient to not separate non-lease components from the lease components to which they relate, and instead account for each as a single lease component, for all underlying asset classes. Accordingly, all expenses associated with a lease contract are accounted for as lease expenses.
Adoption of the new standard resulted in the recording of operating right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $39 million and $41 million, respectively, as of the first day of our fiscal first quarter of 2019. The difference between the right-of-use assets and lease liabilities relates to the deferred rent liability balance as of the end of fiscal 2018 associated with the leases capitalized. The deferred rent liability, which was the difference between the straight-line lease expense and cash paid, reduced the right-of-use asset upon adoption. Our accounting for finance leases remained substantially unchanged. The standard did not materially impact our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income or our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued guidance on accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. This guidance sets forth a current expected credit loss model, which requires the measurement of credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The guidance requires the application of a current expected credit loss model, which is a new impairment model based on expected losses. Under this model, an entity recognizes an allowance for expected credit losses based on historical experience, current conditions and forecasted information rather than the current methodology of delaying recognition of credit losses until it is probable a loss has been incurred. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 (Q1 2020 for TrueBlue) with early adoption permitted. Although the impact upon adoption will depend on the financial instruments held at that time, we do not anticipate a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements based on the instruments currently held and our historical trend of bad debt expense relating to trade accounts receivable. We plan to adopt this guidance on the effective date and are currently evaluating the impact on our accounting policies, processes, systems, and internal controls.
No other new accounting pronouncement issued or effective during the fiscal year had, or is expected to have, a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.