SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of business
TrueBlue, Inc. (“TrueBlue,” “we,” “us,” and “our”) is a leading provider of specialized workforce solutions and services, helping clients improve growth and performance by providing contingent staffing, recruitment process outsourcing ("RPO") solutions, and management of contingent staffing. Our workforce solutions meet clients’ needs for a reliable, efficient workforce in a wide variety of industries. Through our workforce solutions, we help businesses be more productive and we connect people to work each year. We are headquartered in Tacoma, Washington.
Commencing in the fourth quarter of 2016, we changed our internal reporting structure to better align our operations with customer needs. As a result of this change, our former Staffing Services reportable segment has been separated into two reportable segments, PeopleReady and PeopleManagement. The PeopleReady reportable segment represents our PeopleReady operating segment and the PeopleManagement reportable segment consists of the Staff Management | SMX ("Staff Management"), SIMOS, PlaneTechs, and Centerline operating segments. In addition, our former Managed Services reportable segment has been renamed PeopleScout, which consists of the PeopleScout and PeopleScout Managed Service Provider operating segments.
We operate our workforce solutions through three reportable segments, PeopleReady, PeopleManagement, and PeopleScout. For additional information on our segments see Note 17: Segment Information.
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of TrueBlue and all of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
The consolidated financial statements include the results of operations and cash flows of the RPO business of Aon Hewitt from the acquisition date to January 1, 2017, and not from any prior periods. For additional information see Note 2: Acquisitions.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year balances in order to conform to the current year's presentation, including reclassifications related to our change in reportable segments.
Fiscal period end
During the fourth fiscal quarter of 2016, we changed our week-ending date from Friday to the following Sunday in order to better align our week-ending date with that of our customers. On December 15, 2016, we changed our fiscal period end day from the last Friday to the Sunday closest to the last day of December. Our fiscal quarters will also end on the Sunday closet to the last day in March, June, and September. This change is effective with our fiscal year ended January 1, 2017. In prior years, the consolidated financial statements were presented with the last day of the fiscal year ending on the last Friday of December. The change in fiscal year end and quarter end will not have a material effect on the comparability of the periods presented.
The consolidated financial statements are presented on a 52/53-week fiscal year end basis, with the last day of the fiscal year currently ending on the Sunday closest to the last day of December. In fiscal years consisting of 53 weeks, the final quarter will consist of 14 weeks while in 52-week years all quarters will consist of 13 weeks. The three most recent years ended on January 1, 2017, December 25, 2015, and December 26, 2014. Our 2016 fiscal year contained 53 weeks, with the 53rd week falling in our fourth fiscal quarter, while our 2015 and 2014 fiscal years contained 52 weeks.
Revenue is recognized at the time the service is provided by the temporary worker. Revenue from permanent placement services is recognized at the time the permanent placement candidate begins full-time employment. Revenue from other staffing fee-based services is recognized when the services are provided. Revenue also includes billable travel and other reimbursable costs. Customer discounts or other incentives are recognized in the period the related revenue is earned. Revenues are reported net of sales, use, or other transaction taxes collected from customers and remitted to taxing authorities.
We record revenue on a gross basis as a principal versus on a net basis as an agent in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). We have determined that gross reporting as a principal is the appropriate treatment based upon the following key factors:
We maintain the direct contractual relationship with the customer.
We have discretion in selecting and assigning the temporary worker to a particular job and establishing their billing rate.
We bear the risk and rewards of the transaction, including credit risk, if the customer fails to pay for services performed.
Cost of services
Cost of services refers to costs directly associated with the earning of revenue and primarily includes wages and related payroll taxes and workers’ compensation expenses. Cost of services also includes billable travel as well as other reimbursable and non-reimbursable expenses.
Advertising costs consist primarily of print and other promotional activities. We expense advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. Advertising expenses included in Selling, general and administrative expenses were $7.8 million, $9.1 million, and $6.2 million in 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities
We consider all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less at date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Investments with original maturities greater than three months are classified as marketable securities. We do not buy and hold securities principally for the purpose of selling them in the near future. Our investment policy is focused on the preservation of capital, liquidity, and return. From time to time, we may sell certain securities but the objective is generally not to generate profits on short-term differences in price. We manage our cash equivalents and marketable securities as a single portfolio of highly liquid securities.
Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the failure of our customers to make required payments. The allowance for doubtful accounts is determined based on current collection efforts, historical collection trends, write-off experience, customer credit risk, and current economic data. The allowance for doubtful accounts is reviewed quarterly and represents our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses. Past due balances are written off when it is probable the receivable will not be collected. Our allowance for doubtful accounts was $5.2 million and $5.9 million as of January 1, 2017 and December 25, 2015, respectively.
Restricted cash and investments
Cash and investments pledged as collateral and restricted to use for workers' compensation insurance programs are included as Restricted cash and investments on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our investments consist of highly rated investment grade debt securities, which are rated A1/P1 or higher for short-term securities and A- or higher for long-term securities, by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations. We have the positive intent and ability to hold all these restricted investments until maturity in accordance with our investment policy and, accordingly, all of our restricted investments are classified as held-to-maturity. In the event that an investment is downgraded, it is replaced with a highly rated investment grade security. We review for impairment on a quarterly basis and do not consider temporary unrealized losses to be an impairment.
We have an agreement with AIG and the Bank of New York Mellon creating a trust ("Trust"), which holds the majority of our collateral obligations under existing workers' compensation insurance policies. Placing the collateral in the Trust allows us to manage the investment of the assets and provides greater protection of those assets.
Fair value of financial instruments and investments
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. For assets and liabilities recorded or disclosed at fair value on a recurring basis, we determine fair value based on the following:
Level 1: The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and mutual funds approximates fair value because of the short-term nature of these instruments. Inputs are valued using quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. Instead we use quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices or we estimate the fair value using a variety of valuation methodologies, which include observable inputs for comparable instruments and unobservable inputs. Our investments consist of highly rated investment grade debt securities, which are rated A1/P1 or higher for short-term securities and A- or higher for long-term securities, by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations.
Level 3: For assets and liabilities with unobservable inputs, we typically rely on management's estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
The carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash approximates fair value because of the short-term maturity of those instruments. There are inherent limitations when estimating the fair value of financial instruments, and the fair values reported are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that would be realized in current market transactions.
The carrying value of our accounts receivable, accounts payable and other accrued expenses, and accrued wages and benefits approximates fair value due to their short-term nature. We also hold certain restricted investments which collateralize workers' compensation programs and are classified as held-to-maturity and carried at amortized cost on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Certain items such as goodwill and other intangible assets are recognized or disclosed at fair value on a non-recurring basis. We determine the fair value of these items using Level 3 inputs, as described in the related sections below.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. We compute depreciation using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Computers and software
3 - 10
Furniture and equipment
3 - 10
Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the related non-cancelable lease term, which is typically 90 days, or their estimated useful lives.
Non-capital expenditures associated with opening new locations are expensed as incurred.
When property is retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss, net of proceeds, is reflected on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Repairs and maintenance costs are charged directly to expense as incurred. Major renewals or replacements that substantially extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized and depreciated.
Costs associated with the acquisition or development of software for internal use are capitalized and amortized over the expected useful life of the software, from three to ten years. A subsequent addition, modification, or upgrade to internal-use software is capitalized to the extent that it enhances the software's functionality or extends its useful life. Software maintenance and training costs are expensed in the period incurred.
We conduct our branch office operations from leased locations. Many leases require payment of real estate taxes, insurance, and common area maintenance, in addition to rent. The terms of our lease agreements generally range from three to five years with options to cancel, typically within 90 days of notification.
For leases that contain predetermined fixed escalations of the minimum rent, we recognize the related rent expense on a straight-line basis from the date we take possession of the property to the end of the minimum lease term. We record any difference between the straight-line rent amounts and amounts payable under the leases as part of deferred rent, in accrued liabilities or long-term liabilities, as appropriate.
Cash or lease incentives received upon entering into certain leases ("tenant allowances") are recognized on a straight-line basis as a reduction to rent from the date we take possession of the property through the end of the initial lease term. We record the unamortized portion of tenant allowances as a part of deferred rent, in accrued liabilities or long-term liabilities, as appropriate.
Finite-lived intangible assets
Intangible assets primarily consist of identifiable finite-lived intangible assets acquired through acquisitions and include trade names/trademarks, customer relationships, non-compete agreements, and acquired technology. We amortize intangible assets using the straight-line method over their useful lives. We amortize non-compete covenants using the straight-line method over the lives of the related agreements.
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations. If necessary, we reassign goodwill using a relative fair value allocation approach. We test for goodwill impairment at the reporting unit level. We consider our service lines to be our reporting units for goodwill impairment testing. At the time of our annual impairment test, our service lines were Labor Ready, Spartan Staffing, CLP Resources, PlaneTechs, Centerline, Staff Management, SIMOS, PeopleScout, hrX, and PeopleScout MSP. The impairment test involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value reflects the price a market participant would be willing to pay in a potential sale of the reporting unit. If the fair value exceeds carrying value, we conclude that no goodwill impairment has occurred. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, a second step is required to measure possible goodwill impairment loss. The second step includes hypothetically valuing the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities of the reporting unit as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. The implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill is compared to the carrying value of that goodwill. If the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of the goodwill, we recognize an impairment loss in an amount equal to the excess, not to exceed the carrying value.
Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions to evaluate the impact of operating and macroeconomic changes on each reporting unit. The fair value of each reporting unit is estimated using a discounted cash flow methodology. This analysis requires significant judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur, and determination of our weighted average cost of capital, which is risk-adjusted to reflect the specific risk profile of the reporting unit being tested. We also identify similar publicly traded companies and develop a correlation, referred to as a multiple, to apply to the operating results of the reporting units. The primary market multiples we compare to are revenue and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. These combined fair values are then reconciled to our aggregate market value of our shares of common stock on the date of valuation, while considering a reasonable control premium.
We consider a reporting unit’s fair value to be substantially in excess of its carrying value at 20% or greater. We base fair value estimates on assumptions we believe to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and inherently uncertain. Actual future results may differ from those estimates.
We performed our annual goodwill impairment analysis and recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $65.9 million in fiscal 2016 with respect to the Staff Management, PlaneTechs, and hrX reporting units. Refer to Note 6: Goodwill and Intangible Assets for further details.
There were no goodwill impairment charges recorded during fiscal 2015 or 2014.
Long-lived asset impairment
Long-lived assets include property and equipment and indefinite-lived intangible assets. Property and equipment are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. We have determined that no triggering events have occurred during the period that would require us to perform an impairment test over property and equipment. We have indefinite-lived intangible assets related to our Staff Management and PeopleScout trade names. We test our trade names annually for impairment, and when indications of potential impairment exist. We utilize the relief from royalty method to determine the fair value of each of our trade names. If the carrying value exceeds the fair value, we recognize an impairment loss in an amount equal to the excess, not to exceed the carrying value. Management uses considerable judgment to determine key assumptions, including projected revenue, royalty rates and appropriate discount rates. We performed our annual indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test as the first day of our second fiscal quarter and determined that the estimated fair values exceeded the carrying amounts of the PeopleScout reporting unit indefinite-lived trade name and accordingly no impairment loss was recognized.
During fiscal 2016, we recognized an impairment loss on long-lived assets of $37.7 million due to a change in scope of services by Staff Management for our largest customer, as well as a change to the organizational and reporting structure of our Labor Ready, Spartan Staffing, and CLP Resources service lines, which were combined and re-branded as PeopleReady. Refer to Note 6: Goodwill and Intangible Assets for further details.
There were no long-lived asset impairment charges recorded during fiscal 2015 or 2014.
We account for our business acquisitions using the purchase method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. The fair value of the net assets acquired and the results of the acquired business are included in the financial statements from the acquisition date forward. We are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and results of operations during the reporting period. Estimates are used in accounting for, among other things, the fair value of acquired net operating assets, property and equipment, intangible assets, useful lives of property and equipment, and amortizable lives for acquired intangible assets. Any excess of the purchase consideration over the identified fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired is recognized as goodwill. Goodwill acquired in business combinations is assigned to the reporting unit(s) expected to benefit from the combination as of the acquisition date. We estimate the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities as of the date of the acquisition based on information available at that time. The valuation of these tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities is subject to further management review and may change between the preliminary allocation and the final allocation. Any changes to these estimates may have a material impact on our operating results or financial condition.
All acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred and recorded in Selling, general and administrative expense on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Additionally, we recognize liabilities for anticipated restructuring costs that will be necessary due to the elimination of excess capacity, redundant assets, or unnecessary functions and record them as Selling, general, and administrative expense.
Workers’ compensation claims reserves
We maintain reserves for workers’ compensation claims using actuarial estimates of the future cost of claims and related expenses. These estimates include claims that have been reported but not settled and claims that have been incurred but not reported. These reserves, which reflect potential liabilities to be paid in future periods based on estimated payment patterns, are discounted to estimated net present value using discount rates based on average returns of “risk-free” U.S. Treasury instruments, which are evaluated on a quarterly basis. We evaluate the reserves regularly throughout the year and make adjustments accordingly. If the actual cost of such claims and related expenses exceeds the amounts estimated, additional reserves may be required. Changes in reserve estimates are reflected in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) in the period when the changes in estimates are made.
Our workers’ compensation reserves include estimated expenses related to claims above our self-insured limits (“excess claims”) and a corresponding receivable for the insurance coverage on excess claims based on the contractual policy agreements we have with insurance companies. We discount the liability and its corresponding receivable to its estimated net present value using the “risk-free” rates associated with the actuarially determined weighted average lives of our excess claims. When appropriate, based on our best estimate, we record a valuation allowance against the insurance receivable to reflect amounts that may not be realized.
Legal contingency reserves and regulatory liabilities
From time to time we are subject to compliance audits by federal, state and local authorities relating to a variety of regulations including wage and hour laws, taxes, workers’ compensation, immigration, and safety. In addition, we are subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our operations. We establish reserves for contingent legal and regulatory liabilities when management determines that it is probable that a legal claim will result in an adverse outcome and the amount of liability can be reasonably estimated. To the extent that an insurance company is contractually obligated to reimburse us for a liability, we record a receivable for the amount of the probable reimbursement. We evaluate our reserve regularly throughout the year and make adjustments as needed. If the actual outcome of these matters is different than expected, an adjustment is charged or credited to expense in the period the outcome occurs or the period in which the estimate changes.
Income taxes and related valuation allowance
We account for income taxes by recording taxes payable or receivable for the current year and deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. These expected future tax consequences are measured based on provisions of tax law as currently enacted; the effects of future changes in tax laws are not anticipated. Future tax law changes, such as changes to the federal and state corporate tax rates and the mix of states and their taxable income, could have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. When appropriate, we record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets to offset future tax benefits that may not be realized. In determining whether a valuation allowance is appropriate, we consider whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized, based in part upon management’s judgments regarding future events and past operating results. Based on that analysis, we have determined that a valuation allowance is appropriate for certain net operating losses and tax credits that we expect will not be utilized within the permitted carry forward periods as of January 1, 2017 and December 25, 2015.
Under various plans, officers, employees, and non-employee directors have received or may receive grants of stock, restricted stock awards, performance share units, or options to purchase common stock. We also have an employee stock purchase plan.
Compensation expense for restricted stock awards and performance share units is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the stock’s fair market value on the grant date. For restricted stock and performance share unit grants issued with performance conditions, compensation expense is recognized over each vesting period based on assessment of the likelihood of meeting these conditions. We recognize compensation expense for only the portion of restricted stock and performance share units that is expected to vest, rather than record forfeitures when they occur. If the actual number of forfeitures differs from those estimated by management, additional adjustments to compensation expense may be required in the future periods. We determine the fair value of options to purchase common stock using the Black-Scholes valuation model, which requires the input of subjective assumptions. We recognize expense over the service period for options that are expected to vest and record adjustments to compensation expense at the end of the service period if actual forfeitures differ from original estimates.
Our consolidated financial statements are reported in U.S. dollars. Assets and liabilities of international subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currencies are translated to U.S. dollars at the exchange rates in effect on the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses for each subsidiary are translated to U.S. dollars using a weighted average rate for the relevant reporting period. Translation adjustments resulting from this process are included, net of tax, in other comprehensive income ("OCI") where applicable. Currency gains and losses on intercompany loans intended to be a permanent investments in international subsidiaries are included, net of tax, in OCI.
Purchases and retirement of our common stock
We may purchase our common stock under a program authorized by our Board of Directors. Under applicable Washington State law, shares purchased are not displayed separately as treasury stock on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and are treated as authorized but unissued shares. It is our accounting policy to first record these purchases as a reduction to our common stock account. Once the common stock account has been reduced to a nominal balance, remaining purchases are recorded as a reduction to our Retained earnings. Furthermore, activity in our common stock account related to stock-based compensation is also recorded to Retained earnings until such time as the reduction to Retained earnings due to stock repurchases has been recovered.
Net income (loss) per share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares include the dilutive effects of vested and non-vested restricted stock, performance share units, and shares issued under the employee stock purchase plan, except where their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Anti-dilutive shares primarily include non-vested restricted stock, and performance share units for which the sum of the assumed proceeds, including unrecognized compensation expense, exceeds the average stock price during the periods presented. Anti-dilutive shares associated with our stock options relate to those stock options with an exercise price higher than the average market value of our stock during the periods presented.
Use of estimates
Preparing financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses. Estimates in our financial statements include, but are not limited to, purchase accounting, allowance for doubtful accounts, estimates for asset and goodwill impairments, stock-based performance awards, assumptions underlying self-insurance reserves, contingent legal and regulatory liabilities, and the potential outcome of future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the financial statements. Actual results and outcomes may differ from these estimates and assumptions.
Recently adopted accounting standards
Effective December 26, 2015, we early adopted the accounting standard that simplified the balance sheet disclosure of deferred income taxes retrospectively to all periods presented. This guidance requires deferred tax liabilities and assets to be classified as non-current on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and may be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax liabilities and assets or retrospectively to all periods presented. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact to our financial statements.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued guidance to simplify the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating the requirement to perform a Step 2 impairment test to compute the implied fair value of goodwill. Instead, companies will only compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value (Step 1) and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value; however, the loss recognized may not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. This amended guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019 (Q1 2020 for TrueBlue), with early adoption permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. We plan to early adopt this guidance for our annual impairment test as of the first day of our fiscal second quarter of 2017. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued guidance to amend the presentation of restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. The standard requires restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. This amended guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 (Q1 2018 for TrueBlue), with early adoption permitted. We plan to adopt this guidance on the effective date. Changes in restricted cash and cash equivalents recorded in cash flows from investing were $19.8 million, $18.4 million, and $9.3 million for fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
In October 2016, FASB issued guidance on the accounting for income tax effects of intercompany sales or transfers of assets other than inventory. The guidance requires entities to recognize the income tax impact of an intra-entity sale or transfer of an asset other than inventory when the sale or transfer occurs, rather than when the assets has been sold to an outside party. This guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 (Q1 2018 for TrueBlue), with early adoption permitted. The guidance will require a modified retrospective application with a cumulative catch-up adjustment to opening retained earnings. We plan to adopt this guidance on the effective date and do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued an accounting standards update relating to how certain cash receipts and cash payments should be presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The update is intended to reduce the existing diversity in practice. The amended guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017 (Q1 2018 for TrueBlue), with early adoption permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The adoption of the amendment should be applied using the retrospective transition method, if practicable. We plan to adopt this amendment on the effective date and do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued guidance on accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. This guidance sets forth a current expected credit loss model which requires measurement of all expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost and some off-balance sheet exposures, as well as trade account receivables. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 (Q1 2020 for TrueBlue) with early adoption permitted no sooner than Q1 2019. A modified retrospective approach is required for all investments, except debt securities for which an other-than-temporary impairment had been recognized prior to the effective date, which will require a prospective transition approach. We plan to adopt this guidance on the effective date and are currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued guidance to improve employee share-based payment accounting. The simplifications include income tax consequences, classification of awards as equity or liabilities, and classification within the statement of cash flows. This guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016 (Q1 2017 for TrueBlue), and early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt the guidance on the effective date. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued guidance on lease accounting. The new guidance will continue to classify leases as either finance or operating and will result in the lessee recognizing a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability on its balance sheet, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the statement of income. This guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018 (Q1 2019 for TrueBlue), and early adoption is permitted. A modified retrospective approach is required for all leases existing or entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the consolidated financial statements. We plan to adopt the guidance on the effective date. We are currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements and expect that a majority of our operating lease commitments will be recognized on our Consolidated Balance Sheets as operating lease liabilities and right-of-use assets upon adoption. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the pattern of expense recognition in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
In January 2016, the FASB issued guidance on the accounting for equity investments, financial liabilities under the fair value option, and the presentation and disclosure requirements for financial instruments. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 (Q1 2018 for TrueBlue). Early adoption of the amendments in the guidance is not permitted, with limited exceptions, and should be applied by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. We plan to adopt the guidance on the effective date. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued guidance outlining a single comprehensive model for accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers which supersedes the current revenue recognition guidance. This guidance requires an entity to recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance requires enhanced disclosures, including revenue recognition policies to identify performance obligations to customers and significant judgments in measurement and recognition. The guidance also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments as well as assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. The guidance provides two methods of initial adoption: retrospective for all periods presented (full retrospective), or through a cumulative adjustment in the year of adoption (modified retrospective). Since the issuance of the original standard, the FASB has issued several other subsequent updates including the following: 1) clarification of the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations; 2) further guidance on identifying performance obligations in a contract as well as clarifications on the licensing implementation guidance; and 3) additional guidance and practical expedients in response to identified implementation issues. The effective date is for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 (Q1 2018 for TrueBlue), and we expect to adopt the guidance using the modified retrospective approach.
We established a cross-functional implementation team consisting of representatives from across our business segments and various departments. We are utilizing a bottoms-up approach to analyze the impact of the standard on our various revenue streams by reviewing our current contracts with customers, accounting policies, and business practices to identify potential differences that would result from applying the requirements of the new standard. We are in the process of identifying appropriate changes to our business processes, systems, and controls to support recognition and disclosure under the new standard.
We have been closely monitoring FASB activity related to the new standard to conclude on specific interpretive issues. During 2016, we made significant progress toward completing our evaluation of the potential impact that adopting the new standard will have on our consolidated financial statements. Revenue on the majority of our contracts with customers will continue to be recognized over time as services are rendered. The impact of adopting this new guidance primarily relates to deferring contract costs and estimating variable consideration when the estimation will not result in the reversal of that revenue in subsequent periods. Therefore, we do not anticipate this will have a material impact on our financial reporting other than expanded disclosures. However, the full extent of the impact is subject to the completion of our assessment.
Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements upon adoption.