In our opinion, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, of a normal recurring nature, necessary to fairly state our financial position at March 31, 2019, and our results of operations, comprehensive income (loss), cash flows and changes in shareholders' equity for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2019 and 2018. The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2018 was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Leases. We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets (“ROU assets”), accrued liabilities and other liabilities on our condensed consolidated balance sheet. Finance lease ROU assets are included in property and equipment, net, notes payable, and long-term debt on our condensed consolidated balance sheet.
ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the duration of the lease term while lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments in exchange for the right to use an underlying asset. ROU assets and lease liabilities are measured based on the present value of fixed lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the commencement date and initial direct costs incurred, and is reduced by any lease incentives received. We review our ROU assets as events occur or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount of the ROU assets are not recoverable and exceed their fair values. If the carrying amount of the ROU asset is not recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows, then we would recognize an impairment loss for the difference between the carrying amount and the current fair value.
As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we generally use our incremental borrowing rate on the commencement date of the lease as the discount rate in determining the present value of future lease payments. We determine the incremental borrowing rate for each lease by using the current yields of our uncollateralized, publicly traded debts with maturity periods similar to the respective lease term, adjusted to a collateralized basis based on third-party data. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when there are relevant economic incentives present that make it reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. We account for any non-lease components separately from lease components.
For operating leases, lease expense for future fixed lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For finance leases, lease expense for future fixed lease payments is recognized using the effective interest rate method over the lease term. Variable lease payments are recognized as lease expense in the period incurred. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; we recognize lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements. In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued a new standard for leases, ASC 842, which changes the accounting model for identifying and accounting for leases. We adopted ASC 842 on January 1, 2019 using the optional transition method, which allows for initial application of the new standard beginning at the adoption date. We elected the package of practical expedients that allows us to forgo reassessing a) whether any existing contracts are or contain leases, b) the lease classification for any existing leases, and c) whether initial direct costs for any existing leases are capitalized. We also elected the practical expedient to use hindsight with respect to lease renewals, terminations, and purchase options when determining the lease term and in assessing impairment of the assets related to leases existing at the time of adoption. As a result of the standard, we recorded $236 million of operating lease ROU assets, $45 million of short-term operating lease liabilities, and $214 million of long-term operating lease liabilities on the date of adoption. Our accounting for finance leases remained unchanged. The standard did not impact our condensed consolidated statements of operations or statements of cash flows.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities," which improves and simplifies accounting rules around hedge accounting and better portrays the economic results of an entity's risk management activities in its financial statements. We adopted ASU 2017-12 on January 1, 2019. The adoption of the standard did not impact our financial position or results of operations.
A. ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Concluded)
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting," which modifies the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to nonemployees to largely align it with the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to employees.
We adopted ASU 2018-07 on January 1, 2019. The adoption of the standard did not impact our financial position or results of operations.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments," which modifies the methodology for recognizing loss impairments on certain types of financial instruments, including receivables. The new methodology requires an entity to estimate the credit losses expected over the life of an exposure. Additionally, ASU 2016-13 amends the current available-for-sale security other-than-temporary impairment model for debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for us for annual periods beginning January 1, 2020. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this new standard will have on our financial position and results of operations.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract," which allows for the capitalization of certain implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract. ASU 2018-15 allows for either retrospective adoption or prospective adoption to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. ASU 2018-15 is effective for us for annual periods beginning January 1, 2020. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this new standard will have on our financial position and results of operations.