Principles of Consolidation. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Masco Corporation and all majority-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated. We consolidate the assets, liabilities and results of operations of variable interest entities for which we are the primary beneficiary.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions in the Preparation of Financial Statements. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires us to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of any contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions.
Revenue Recognition. We recognize revenue as control of our products is transferred to our customers, which is generally at the time of shipment or upon delivery based on the contractual terms with our customers. Our customers' payment terms generally range from 30 to 65 days of fulfilling our performance obligations and recognizing revenue.
We provide customer programs and incentive offerings, including special pricing and co-operative advertising arrangements, promotions and other volume-based incentives. These customer programs and incentives are considered variable consideration. We include in revenue variable consideration only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the variable consideration is resolved. This determination is made based upon known customer program and incentive offerings at the time of sale, and expected sales volume forecasts as it relates to our volume-based incentives. This determination is updated each reporting period.
Certain product sales include a right of return. We estimate future product returns at the time of sale based on historical experience and record a corresponding refund liability. We additionally record an asset, based on historical experience, for the amount of product we expect to return to inventory as a result of the return, which is recorded in prepaid expenses and other in the consolidated balance sheets.
We consider shipping and handling activities performed by us as activities to fulfill the sales of our products. Amounts billed for shipping and handling are included in net sales, while costs incurred for shipping and handling are included in cost of sales. We capitalize incremental costs of obtaining a contract and expense the costs on a straight-line basis over the contractual period if the cost is recoverable, the cost would not have been incurred without the contract and the term of the contract is greater than one year; otherwise, we expense the amounts as incurred. We do not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a financing component if the period between when we transfer our products or services and when our customers pay for our products or services is expected to be one year or less.
Customer Displays. In-store displays that are owned by us and used to market our products are included in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized using the straight-line method over the expected useful life of three to five years; related amortization expense is classified as a selling expense in the consolidated statement of operations.
Foreign Currency. The financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries are measured using the local currency as the functional currency. Assets and liabilities of these subsidiaries are translated at exchange rates as of the balance sheet dates. Revenues and expenses are translated at average exchange rates in effect during the year. The resulting cumulative translation adjustments have been recorded in the accumulated other comprehensive loss component of shareholders' equity. Realized foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the consolidated statements of operations in other income (expense), net.
Cash and Cash Investments. We consider all highly liquid investments with an initial maturity of three months or less to be cash and cash investments.
Short-Term Bank Deposits. Occasionally, we invest a portion of our foreign excess cash in short-term bank deposits. These highly liquid investments have original maturities between three and twelve months and are valued at cost, which approximate their fair value. These short-term bank deposits are classified in the current assets section of our consolidated balance sheets, and interest income related to short-term bank deposits is recorded in our consolidated statements of operations in other income (expense), net.
A. ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Receivables. We do significant business with a number of customers, including certain home center retailers. We monitor our exposure for credit losses on our customer receivable balances and the credit worthiness of our customers on an on-going basis and record related allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. Allowances are estimated based upon specific customer balances, where a risk of default has been identified, and also include a provision for non-customer specific defaults based upon historical collection, return and write-off activity. A separate allowance is recorded for customer incentive rebates and is generally based upon sales activity. Receivables are presented net of certain allowances (including allowances for doubtful accounts) of $36 million and $33 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment, including significant improvements to existing facilities, are recorded at cost. Upon retirement or disposal, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in the consolidated statements of operations. Maintenance and repair costs are charged against earnings as incurred.
We review our property and equipment as events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the property and equipment below its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of property and equipment is not recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows, then we would recognize an impairment loss for the difference between the carrying amount and the current fair value. Further, we evaluate the remaining useful lives of property and equipment at each reporting period to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining depreciation periods.
Depreciation. Depreciation expense is computed principally using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Annual depreciation rates are as follows: buildings and land improvements, 2 to 10 percent, computer hardware and software, 17 to 33 percent, and machinery and equipment, 5 to 33 percent. Depreciation expense, including discontinued operations, was $132 million in 2019 and 2018 and $116 million in 2017.
Leases. We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets (“ROU assets”), accrued liabilities and other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet. Finance lease ROU assets are included in property and equipment, net, notes payable, and long-term debt on our consolidated balance sheet.
ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the duration of the lease term while lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments in exchange for the right to use an underlying asset. ROU assets and lease liabilities are measured based on the present value of fixed lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the commencement date and initial direct costs incurred, and is reduced by any lease incentives received. We review our ROU assets as events occur or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount of the ROU assets are not recoverable and exceed their fair values. If the carrying amount of the ROU asset is not recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows, then we would recognize an impairment loss for the difference between the carrying amount and the current fair value.
As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we generally use our incremental borrowing rate on the commencement date of the lease as the discount rate in determining the present value of future lease payments. We determine the incremental borrowing rate for each lease by using the current yields of our uncollateralized, publicly traded debts with maturity periods similar to the respective lease term, adjusted to a collateralized basis based on third-party data. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when there are relevant economic incentives present that make it reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. We account for any non-lease components separately from lease components.
For operating leases, lease expense for future fixed lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For finance leases, lease expense for future fixed lease payments is recognized using the effective interest rate method over the lease term. Variable lease payments are recognized as lease expense in the period incurred. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; we recognize lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
A. ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. We perform our annual impairment testing of goodwill in the fourth quarter of each year, or as events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. We have defined our reporting units and completed the impairment testing of goodwill at the operating segment level. Our operating segments are reporting units that engage in business activities, for which discrete financial information, including five-year forecasts, are available. We compare the fair value of the reporting units to the carrying value of the reporting units for goodwill impairment testing. Fair value is determined primarily using a discounted cash flow method, which includes significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 inputs), and requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions, including long-term projections of cash flows, market conditions and appropriate discount rates. Our judgments are based upon historical experience, current market trends, consultations with external valuation specialists and other information. In estimating future cash flows, we rely on internally generated five-year forecasts for sales and operating profits, and, currently, a two percent to three percent long-term assumed annual growth rate of cash flows for periods after the five-year forecast. We utilize our weighted average cost of capital of approximately 8.0 percent as the basis to determine the discount rate to apply to the estimated future cash flows. In 2019, based upon our assessment of the risks impacting each of our businesses, we applied a risk premium to increase the discount rate to a range of 10.0 percent to 12.0 percent for our reporting units. For our Masco Cabinetry reporting unit, we utilized a market approach to determine its fair value instead of the discounted cash flow method, as we were actively marketing the Masco Cabinetry business for sale and on November 14, 2019 we entered into a definitive agreement to sell the business. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized to the extent that a reporting unit's carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill in that reporting unit.
We review our other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually in the fourth quarter, or as events occur or circumstances change that indicate the assets may be impaired without regard to the business unit. Potential impairment is identified by comparing the fair value of an other indefinite-lived intangible asset to its carrying value. We utilize a relief-from-royalty model to estimate the fair value of other indefinite-lived intangible assets. We consider the implications of both external (e.g., market growth, competition and local economic conditions) and internal (e.g., product sales and expected product growth) factors and their potential impact on cash flows related to the intangible asset in both the near- and long-term. We also consider the profitability of the business, among other factors, to determine the royalty rate for use in the impairment assessment. We utilize our weighted average cost of capital of approximately 8.0 percent as the basis to determine the discount rate to apply to the estimated future cash flows. In 2019, based upon our assessment of the risks impacting each of our businesses, we applied a risk premium to increase the discount rate to a range of 11.0 percent to 13.0 percent for our other indefinite-lived intangible assets.
While we believe that the estimates and assumptions underlying the valuation methodologies are reasonable, different estimates and assumptions could result in different outcomes.
Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. We review our intangible assets with finite useful lives as events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the assets below its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the assets is not recoverable from the undiscounted cash flows, then we would recognize an impairment loss for the difference between the carrying amount and the current fair value. We evaluate the remaining useful lives of amortizable intangible assets at each reporting period to determine whether events or circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining periods of amortization.
Refer to Note H for additional information regarding goodwill and other intangible assets.
Fair Value Accounting. We use derivative financial instruments to manage certain exposure to fluctuations in earnings and cash flows resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, and occasionally from changes in commodity costs and interest rate exposures. Derivative financial instruments are recorded in the consolidated balance sheets as either an asset or liability measured at fair value, netted by counterparty, where the right of offset exists. The gain or loss is recognized in determining current earnings during the period of the change in fair value. We currently do not have any derivative instruments for which we have designated hedge accounting.
A. ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Warranty. We offer limited warranties on certain products with warranty periods ranging up to the lifetime of the product to the original consumer purchaser. At the time of sale, we accrue a warranty liability for the estimated future cost to provide products, parts or services to repair or replace products to satisfy our warranty obligations. Our estimate of future costs to service our warranty obligations is based upon the information available and includes a number of factors, such as the warranty coverage, the warranty period, historical experience specific to the nature, frequency and average cost to service the claim, along with industry and demographic trends.
Certain factors and related assumptions in determining our warranty liability involve judgments and estimates and are sensitive to changes in the factors described above. We believe that the warranty accrual is appropriate; however, actual claims incurred could differ from our original estimates which would require us to adjust our previously established accruals. Refer to Note T for additional information on our warranty accrual.
A significant portion of our business is at the consumer retail level through home center retailers and other major retailers. A consumer may return a product to a retail outlet that is a warranty return. However, certain retail outlets do not distinguish between warranty and other types of returns when they claim a return deduction from us. Our revenue recognition policy takes into account this type of return when recognizing revenue, and an estimate of these amounts is recorded as a deduction to net sales at the time of sale.
Insurance Reserves. We provide for expenses associated with workers' compensation and product liability obligations when such amounts are probable and can be reasonably estimated. The accruals are adjusted as new information develops or circumstances change that would affect the estimated liability. Any obligations expected to be settled within 12 months are recorded in accrued liabilities; all other obligations are recorded in other liabilities.
Litigation. We are involved in claims and litigation, including class actions, mass torts and regulatory proceedings, which arise in the ordinary course of our business. Liabilities and costs associated with these matters require estimates and judgments based upon our professional knowledge and experience and that of our legal counsel. When a liability is probable of being incurred and our exposure in these matters is reasonably estimable, amounts are recorded as charges to earnings. The ultimate resolution of these exposures may differ due to subsequent developments.
Stock-Based Compensation. We issue stock-based incentives in various forms to our employees and non-employee Directors. Outstanding stock-based incentives were in the form of long-term stock awards, stock options, restricted stock units ("RSUs"), phantom stock awards and stock appreciation rights ("SARs"). We measure compensation expense for stock awards at the market price of our common stock at the grant date. Such expense is recognized ratably over the shorter of the vesting period of the stock awards, typically five years, or the length of time until the grantee becomes retirement-eligible, generally at age 65. We measure compensation expense for stock options using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. Such expense is recognized ratably over the shorter of the vesting period of the stock options, typically five years, or the length of time until the grantee becomes retirement-eligible, generally at age 65. We measure compensation expense for RSUs at the expected payout of the awards. Such expense is recognized ratably over the three-year vesting period of the units. We recognize forfeitures related to stock awards, stock options and RSUs as they occur.
We initially measure compensation expense for phantom stock awards at the market price of our common stock at the grant date. Such expense is recognized ratably over the vesting period, typically five years. Phantom stock awards are linked to the value of our common stock on the date of grant and are settled in cash upon vesting. We account for phantom stock awards as liability-based awards; the liability is remeasured and adjusted at the end of each reporting period until the awards are fully-vested and paid to the employees. We measure compensation expense for SARs using a Black-Scholes option pricing model; such expense is recognized ratably over the vesting period, typically five years. SARs are linked to the value of our common stock on the date of grant and are settled in cash upon exercise. We account for SARs using the fair value method, which requires outstanding SARs to be classified as liability-based awards. The liability is remeasured and adjusted at the end of each reporting period until the SARs are exercised and payment is made to the employees or the SARs expire. Refer to Note L for additional information on stock-based compensation.
Noncontrolling Interest. We owned 68 percent of Hansgrohe SE at both December 31, 2019 and 2018. The aggregate noncontrolling interest, net of dividends, at December 31, 2019 and 2018 has been recorded as a component of equity on our consolidated balance sheets.
A. ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Discontinued Operations. We report financial results for discontinued operations separately from continuing operations to distinguish the financial impact of disposal transactions from ongoing operations. Discontinued operations reporting occurs only when the disposal of a component or a group of components represents a strategic shift that will have a major effect on our operations and financial results. In our consolidated statements of cash flows, the cash flow from discontinued operations are not separately classified. Refer to Note B for further information regarding our discontinued operations.
Income Taxes. Deferred taxes are recognized based on the future tax consequences of differences between the financial statement carrying value of assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. The future realization of deferred tax assets depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income in future periods. Possible sources of taxable income include taxable income in carryback periods, the future reversal of existing taxable temporary differences recorded as a deferred tax liability, tax-planning strategies that generate future income or gains in excess of anticipated losses in the carryforward period and projected future taxable income.
If, based upon all available evidence, both positive and negative, it is more likely than not (more than 50 percent likely) such deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is recorded. Significant weight is given to positive and negative evidence that is objectively verifiable. A company's three-year cumulative loss position is significant negative evidence in considering whether deferred tax assets are realizable, and the accounting guidance restricts the amount of reliance we can place on projected taxable income to support the recovery of the deferred tax assets.
The current accounting guidance allows the recognition of only those income tax positions that have a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities. We believe that there is an increased potential for volatility in our effective tax rate because this threshold allows for changes in the income tax environment and, to a greater extent, the inherent complexities of income tax law in a substantial number of jurisdictions, which may affect the computation of our liability for uncertain tax positions.
We record interest and penalties on our uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.
The accounting guidance for income taxes requires us to allocate our provision for income taxes between continuing operations and other categories of earnings, such as other comprehensive income (loss). Subsequent adjustments to deferred taxes originally recorded to other comprehensive income (loss) may reverse in a different category of earnings, such as continuing operations, resulting in a disproportionate tax effect within accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Generally, a disproportionate tax effect will be eliminated and recognized in income tax expense when the circumstances upon which it is premised cease to exist.
The disproportionate tax effect related to various defined-benefit pension plans will be eliminated from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) at the termination of the related pension plans. The disproportionate tax effect relating to our interest rate swap hedge, which was terminated in 2012, will be eliminated from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) upon the maturity of the related debt in March 2022.
We record the tax effects of Global Intangible Low-taxed Income related to our foreign operations as a component of income tax expense in the period the tax arises.
Reclassifications. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2019 presentation in the consolidated financial statements.
A. ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Concluded)
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements. In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued a new standard for leases, ASC 842, which changes the accounting model for identifying and accounting for leases. We adopted ASC 842 on January 1, 2019 using the optional transition method, which allows for initial application of the new standard beginning at the adoption date. We elected the package of practical expedients that allows us to forgo reassessing a) whether any existing contracts are or contain leases, b) the lease classification for any existing leases, and c) whether initial direct costs for any existing leases are capitalized. We also elected the practical expedient to use hindsight with respect to lease renewals, terminations, and purchase options when determining the lease term and in assessing impairment of the assets related to leases existing at the time of adoption. As a result of the standard, we recorded $236 million of operating lease ROU assets, $45 million of short-term operating lease liabilities, and $214 million of long-term operating lease liabilities on the date of adoption which includes assets and liabilities that have subsequently been reclassified as held for sale or disposed of. Our accounting for finance leases remained unchanged. The standard did not impact our consolidated statements of operations or statements of cash flows.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities," which improves and simplifies accounting rules around hedge accounting and better portrays the economic results of an entity's risk management activities in its financial statements. We adopted ASU 2017-12 on January 1, 2019. The adoption of the standard did not impact our financial position or results of operations.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting," which modifies the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to nonemployees to largely align it with the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to employees. We adopted ASU 2018-07 on January 1, 2019. The adoption of the standard did not impact our financial position or results of operations.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments," which modifies the methodology for recognizing loss impairments on certain types of financial instruments, including receivables. The new methodology requires an entity to estimate the credit losses expected over the life of an exposure. Additionally, ASU 2016-13 amends the current available-for-sale security other-than-temporary impairment model for debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for us for annual periods beginning January 1, 2020. This standard will impact the valuation of our credit losses relating to our receivables, however, we do not expect the standard to have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract," which allows for the capitalization of certain implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract. ASU 2018-15 allows for either retrospective adoption or prospective adoption to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. We plan to adopt this standard prospectively effective for annual periods beginning January 1, 2020 and do not expect that the adoption of this new standard will have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes," which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740. The amendments also improve consistent application of and simplify GAAP for other areas of Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance. ASU 2019-12 is effective for us for annual periods beginning January 1, 2021. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently reviewing the provisions of this new pronouncement and the impact, if any, the adoption of this guidance has on our financial position and results of operations.