|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations and Basis of Presentation
The Company is principally engaged in the production, marketing and sale of consumer products through mass retailers, grocery outlets, warehouse clubs, dollar stores, home hardware centers, drug, pet and military stores, third-party and owned e-commerce channels, and distributors. The consolidated financial statements include the statements of the Company and its wholly owned and controlled subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and accounts were eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) requires management to reach opinions as to estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and related disclosures. Specific areas requiring the application of management’s estimates and judgments include, among others, assumptions pertaining to accruals for consumer and trade-promotion programs, stock-based compensation, retirement income plans, future cash flows associated with impairment testing of goodwill and other long-lived assets and the valuation of the venture agreement terminal obligation, the valuation of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with a business combination, the credit worthiness of customers, uncertain tax positions, tax valuation allowances and legal, environmental and insurance matters. Actual results could materially differ from estimates and assumptions made.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid interest-bearing accounts, time deposits held by financial institutions and money market funds with an initial maturity at purchase of 90 days or less. The fair value of cash and cash equivalents approximates the carrying amount.
The Company’s cash position includes amounts held by foreign subsidiaries and, as a result, the repatriation of certain cash balances from some of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries could result in additional withholding tax costs in certain foreign jurisdictions. However, these cash balances are generally available without legal restriction to fund local business operations. In addition, a portion of the Company’s cash balance is held in U.S. dollars by foreign subsidiaries whose functional currency is their local currency. Such U.S. dollar balances are reported on the foreign subsidiaries’ books in their functional currency, and the impact on such balances from foreign currency exchange rate differences is recorded in Other (income) expense, net.
As of June 30, 2020, 2019, 2018, and 2017, the Company had $8, $2, $3 and $2 of restricted cash, respectively, which was included in Prepaid expenses and other current assets and Other assets. The restricted cash as of June 30, 2020 was primarily related to funds held in an escrow account with limitations on usage and cash margin deposits held for exchange-traded futures contracts.
The Company values its inventories using both the First-In, First-Out (“FIFO”) and the Last-In, First-Out (“LIFO”) methods. The FIFO inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which includes any costs to sell or dispose. In addition, appropriate consideration is given to obsolescence, excessive inventory levels, product deterioration and other factors in evaluating net realizable value. The LIFO inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market.
Property, Plant and Equipment and Finite-Lived Intangible Assets
Property, plant and equipment and finite-lived intangible assets are stated at cost. Depreciation and amortization expense are primarily calculated by the straight-line method using the estimated useful lives or lives determined by reference to the related lease contract in the case of leasehold improvements. The table below provides estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment by asset classification.
|Buildings and leasehold improvements|
7 - 40 years
10 - 30 years
|Machinery and equipment|
3 - 15 years
3 - 5 years
|Capitalized software costs|
3 - 7 years
Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives, which range from 2 to 30 years.
Property, plant and equipment and finite-lived intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (or asset group) may not be fully recoverable. The risk of impairment is initially assessed based on an estimate of the undiscounted cash flows at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows exist. Impairment occurs when the carrying value of the asset exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows generated by the asset. When impairment is indicated, an impairment charge is recorded for the difference between the carrying value of the asset and its estimated fair market value. Depending on the asset, estimated fair market value may be determined either by use of a discounted cash flow model or by reference to estimated selling values of assets in similar condition.
Capitalization of Software Costs
The Company capitalizes certain qualifying costs incurred in the acquisition and development of software for internal use, including the costs of the software, materials, consultants, interest and payroll and payroll-related costs for employees during the application development stage. Internal and external costs incurred during the preliminary project stage and post implementation-operation stage, mainly training and maintenance costs, are expensed as incurred. Once the application is substantially complete and ready for its intended use, qualifying costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the software’s estimated useful life.
Impairment Review of Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
The Company tests its goodwill, trademarks with indefinite lives and other indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment in the fiscal fourth quarter unless there are indications during a different interim period that these assets may have become impaired.
With respect to goodwill, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors, such as the maturity and stability of the reporting unit, the magnitude of the excess fair value over carrying value from the prior period’s impairment testing, other reporting unit specific operating results as well as new events and circumstances impacting the operations at the reporting unit level. Reporting units for goodwill impairment testing purposes were its individual strategic business units (SBUs). If the result of a qualitative test indicates a potential for impairment of a reporting unit, a quantitative test is performed. The quantitative test is a two-step process. In the first step, the Company compares the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the estimated fair value of any reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the Company performs a second step to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill. If the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment charge is recorded for the difference between the carrying value and the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill. No impairments were identified as a result of the Company’s impairment review during fiscal year 2020.
To determine the fair value of a reporting unit as part of its quantitative test, the Company uses a discounted cash flow (DCF) method under the income approach, as it believes that this approach is the most reliable indicator of the fair value of its businesses and the fair value of their future earnings and cash flows. Under this approach, which requires significant judgments, the Company estimates the future cash flows of each reporting unit and discounts these cash flows at a rate of return that reflects their relative risk. The cash flows used in the DCF method are consistent with those the Company uses in its internal planning, which gives consideration to actual business trends experienced, and the broader business strategy for the long term. The other key estimates and factors used in the DCF method include, but are not limited to, net sales and expense growth rates, commodity prices, foreign exchange rates, inflation and a terminal growth rate. Changes in such estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce different results.
For trademarks and other intangible assets with indefinite lives, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors, such as the maturity and stability of the trademark or other intangible asset, the magnitude of the excess fair value over carrying value from the prior year’s impairment testing, other specific operating results, as well as new events and circumstances impacting the significant inputs used to determine the fair value of the intangible asset. If the result of a qualitative test indicates that it is more likely that not that the asset is impaired, a quantitative test is performed. When a quantitative test is performed, the estimated fair value of an asset is compared to its carrying value. If the carrying value of such asset exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded for the difference between the carrying value and the estimated fair value. The Company uses the income approach to estimate the fair value of its trademarks and other intangible assets with indefinite lives. This approach requires significant judgments in determining the royalty rates and the assets’ estimated cash flows, as well as the appropriate discount and foreign exchange rates applied to those cash flows to determine fair value. Changes in such estimates or the use of alternative assumptions could produce different results. No significant impairments were identified in fiscal year 2020 as a result of the Company’s impairment review during any quarters of fiscal year 2020.
Effective July 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification 842, Leases (ASC 842). Under this guidance, the Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease at inception by determining if the contract conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant or equipment for a period of time in exchange for consideration and other facts and circumstances. Right-of-use (ROU) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets are calculated based on the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments paid to the lessor at or before the commencement date and initial direct costs incurred by the Company and excludes any lease incentives received from the lessor. Lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. The lease term may include an option to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option as of the commencement date of the lease, and is reviewed in subsequent periods if a triggering event occurs. As the Company’s leases typically do not contain a readily determinable implicit rate, the Company determines the present value of the lease liability using its incremental borrowing rate at the lease commencement date based on the lease term and the currency of the lease on a collateralized basis. Variable lease payments are the portion of lease payments that are not fixed over the lease term. Variable lease payments are expensed as incurred, and include certain non-lease components, such as maintenance and other services provided by the lessor, and other charges included in the lease, as applicable. The Company elected to combine lease and non-lease components as a single lease component and to exclude short-term leases, defined as leases with an initial terms of 12 months or less, from its consolidated balance sheet.
The Company grants various nonqualified stock-based compensation awards to eligible employees, including stock options, restricted stock awards and performance shares.
For stock options, the Company estimates the fair value of each award on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes valuation model, which requires management to make estimates regarding expected option life, stock price volatility and other assumptions. Groups of employees that have similar historical exercise behavior are considered separately for valuation purposes. The Company estimates stock option forfeitures based on historical data for each employee grouping. The total number of stock options expected to vest is adjusted by actual and estimated forfeitures. Changes to the actual and estimated forfeitures will result in a cumulative adjustment in the period of change. Compensation expense is recorded by amortizing the grant date fair values on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, adjusted for estimated forfeitures.
For restricted stock awards, the fair value of each grant issued is estimated on the date of grant based on the current market price of the stock. Forfeitures are estimated based on historical data. The total number of restricted stock awards expected to vest is adjusted by actual and estimated forfeitures. Changes to the actual and estimated forfeitures will result in a cumulative adjustment in the period of change. Compensation expense is recorded by amortizing the grant date fair values on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, adjusted for estimated forfeitures.
The Company’s performance shares provide for the issuance of common stock to certain managerial staff and executive management if the Company achieves specified performance targets. The number of shares issued is dependent upon the achievement of specified performance targets. The performance period is three years and the payout determination is made at the end of the -year performance period. Performance shares receive dividends earned during the vesting period upon vesting. The fair value of each grant issued is estimated on the date of grant based on the current market price of the stock. The total amount of compensation expense recognized reflects estimated forfeiture rates and management’s assessment of the probability that performance goals will be achieved. A cumulative adjustment is recognized to compensation expense in the current period to reflect any changes in the probability of achievement of performance goals.
Cash flows resulting from tax deductions in excess of the cumulative compensation cost recognized for stock-based payment arrangements (excess tax benefits) are classified as operating cash inflows.
The Company accounts for its retirement income and retirement health care plans using actuarial methods. These methods use an attribution approach that generally spreads “plan events” over the service lives or expected lifetime (for frozen plans) of plan participants. Examples of plan events are plan amendments and changes in actuarial assumptions such as the expected return on plan assets, discount rate, rate of compensation increase and certain employee-related factors, such as retirement age and mortality. The principle underlying the attribution approach is that employees render service over their employment period on a relatively “smooth” basis and, therefore, the statement of earnings effects of retirement income and retirement health care plans are recognized in the same pattern. One of the principal assumptions used in the net periodic benefit cost calculation is the expected return on plan assets. The expected return on plan assets may result in recognized expense or income that differs from the actual returns of those plan assets in any given year. Over time, however, the goal is for the expected long-term returns to approximate the actual returns and, therefore, the expectation is that the pattern of income and expense recognition should closely match the pattern of the services provided by the participants. The Company uses a market-related value method for calculating plan assets for purposes of determining the amortization of actuarial gains and losses. The differences between actual and expected returns are recognized in the net periodic benefit cost calculation over the average remaining service period or expected lifetime (for frozen plans) of the plan participants using the corridor approach. Under this approach, only actuarial gains (losses) that exceed 5% of the greater of the projected benefit obligation or the market-related value of assets are amortized to the Company’s net periodic benefit cost. In developing its expected return on plan assets, the Company considers the long-term actual returns relative to the mix of investments that comprise its plan assets and also develops estimates of future investment returns by considering external sources.
The Company recognizes an actuarial-based obligation at the onset of disability for certain benefits provided to individuals after employment, but before retirement, that include medical, dental, vision, life and other benefits.
The Company is involved in certain environmental remediation and ongoing compliance activities. Accruals for environmental matters are recorded on a site-by-site basis when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and based upon a reasonable estimate of the liability. The Company’s accruals reflect the anticipated participation of other potentially responsible parties in those instances where it is probable that such parties are legally responsible and financially capable of paying their respective shares of the relevant costs. These accruals are adjusted periodically as assessment and remediation efforts progress or as additional technical or legal information becomes available. Actual costs to be incurred at identified sites in future periods may vary from the estimates, given the inherent uncertainties in evaluating environmental exposures. The accrual for environmental matters is included in Accounts payable and accrued liabilities and Other liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets on an undiscounted basis due to uncertainty regarding the timing of future payments.
The Company’s revenue is primarily generated from the sale of finished product to customers. Revenue is recognized at the point in time when performance obligations under the terms of customer contracts are satisfied, which is when ownership, risks and rewards transfer, and can be on the date of shipment or the date of receipt by the customer, depending upon the particular customer arrangement. Shipping and handling activities are accounted for as contract fulfillment costs and included within Cost of products sold. After the completion of the performance obligation, there is an unconditional right to consideration as outlined in the contract. A right is considered unconditional if nothing other than the passage of time is required before payment of that consideration is due. The Company typically collects its customer receivables within two months. All performance obligations under the terms of contracts with customers have an original duration of one year or less.
The Company has trade promotion programs, which primarily include shelf price reductions, in-store merchandising, and consumer coupons. The costs of such activities, defined as variable consideration under ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” are netted against sales and recorded when the related sales take place. Accruals for trade promotion programs are established based on the Company’s best estimate of the amounts necessary to settle existing and future obligations for products sold as of the balance sheet date. Amounts accrued for trade-promotions are based on various factors such as contractual terms and sales volumes, and also incorporate estimates that include customer participation rates, the rate at which customers will achieve program performance criteria, and consumer redemption rates.
The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its historical experience and ongoing assessment of its customers’ credit risk and aging. Receivables are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts of $10 and $4 as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Receivables, net, included non-customer receivables of $20 and $17 as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Cost of Products Sold
Cost of products sold represents the costs directly related to the manufacture and distribution of the Company’s products and primarily includes raw materials, packaging, contract manufacturing fees, shipping and handling, warehousing, package design, depreciation, amortization, direct and indirect labor and operating costs for the Company’s manufacturing and distribution facilities, including salary, benefit costs and incentive compensation, and royalties and other charges related to the Company’s Glad Venture Agreement (See Note 8).
Costs associated with developing and designing new packaging, including design, artwork, films and labeling, are expensed as incurred and included within Cost of products sold.
Selling and Administrative Expenses
Selling and administrative expenses represent costs incurred by the Company in generating revenues and managing the business and include market research, commissions and certain administrative expenses. Administrative expenses include salary, benefits, incentive compensation, professional fees and services and other operating costs associated with the Company’s non-manufacturing, non-research and development staff, facilities and equipment, as well as software and licensing fees.
Advertising and Research and Development Costs
The Company expenses advertising and research and development costs in the period incurred.
The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the anticipated future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement amounts and their respective tax basis. Management reviews the Company’s deferred tax assets to determine whether their value can be realized based upon available evidence. A valuation allowance is established when management believes that it is more likely than not that some portion of its deferred tax assets will not be realized. Changes in valuation allowances from period to period are included in the Company’s income tax provision in the period of change. In addition to valuation allowances, the Company provides for uncertain tax positions when such tax positions do not meet certain recognition thresholds or measurement standards. Amounts for uncertain tax positions are adjusted in quarters when new information becomes available or when positions are effectively settled.
Per U.S. GAAP, foreign withholding taxes are provided on unremitted foreign earnings that are not indefinitely reinvested at the time the earnings are generated. The Company regularly reviews and assesses whether there are any changes to its indefinite reinvestment assertion and determined that none of the undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries are indefinitely reinvested. As a result, the Company is providing foreign withholding taxes on the undistributed earnings of all foreign subsidiaries where applicable.
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
Local currencies are the functional currencies for substantially all of the Company’s foreign operations. When the transactional currency is different than the functional currency, transaction gains and losses are included as a component of Other (income) expense, net. In addition, certain assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than a foreign subsidiary’s functional currency are reported on the subsidiary’s books in its functional currency, with the impact from exchange rate differences recorded in Other (income) expense, net. Assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, while income and expenses are translated at the respective average monthly exchange rates during the year.
Gains and losses on foreign currency translations are reported as a component of Other comprehensive (loss) income. The income tax effect of currency translation adjustments is recorded as a component of deferred taxes with an offset to Other comprehensive (loss) income where appropriate.
Effective July 1, 2018, under the requirements of U.S. GAAP, Argentina was designated as a highly inflationary economy, since it has experienced cumulative inflation of approximately 100 percent or more over a -year period. As a result, beginning July 1, 2018, the U.S. dollar replaced the Argentine peso as the functional currency of the Company’s subsidiaries in Argentina (collectively, “Clorox Argentina”). Consequently, gains and losses from non-U.S. dollar denominated monetary assets and liabilities for Clorox Argentina are recognized in Other (income) expense, net in the consolidated statement of earnings.
The Company’s use of derivative instruments, principally swaps, futures and forward contracts, is limited to non-trading purposes and is designed to partially manage exposure to changes in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currencies. The Company’s contracts are hedges for transactions with notional amounts and periods consistent with the related exposures and do not constitute investments independent of these exposures.
The changes in the fair value (i.e., gains or losses) of a derivative instrument are recorded as either assets or liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets with an offset to Net earnings or Other comprehensive (loss) income depending on whether, for accounting purposes, it has been designated and qualifies as an accounting hedge and, if so, on the type of hedging relationship. The criteria used to determine if hedge accounting treatment is appropriate are: (a) formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship, the risk management objective and hedging strategy at hedge inception; (b) eligibility of hedged items, transactions and corresponding hedging instrument; and (c) effectiveness of the hedging relationship both at inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis in achieving the hedging objectives. For those derivative instruments designated and qualifying as hedging instruments, the Company must designate the hedging instrument either as a fair value hedge or as a cash flow hedge. The Company designates its commodity forward and future contracts for forecasted purchases of raw materials, interest rate forward contracts for forecasted interest payments, and foreign currency forward contracts for forecasted purchases of inventory as cash flow hedges. During the fiscal years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company had no hedging instruments designated as fair value hedges.
For derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of gains or losses is reported as a component of Other comprehensive (loss) income and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. From time to time, the Company may have contracts not designated as hedges for accounting purposes, for which it recognizes changes in the fair value in the consolidated statement of earnings in the current period. Cash flows from hedging activities are classified as operating activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (ASC 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in ASC 740 and clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. The standard will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2022, with early adoption permitted. The amendments that are related to changes in ownership of foreign equity method investments or foreign subsidiaries are to be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The amendments that are related to franchise taxes that are partially based on income are to be applied on either a retrospective basis for all periods presented or a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments under this ASU are to be applied on a prospective basis.The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (ASC 350): Simplifying the Test for
Goodwill Impairment,” which eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill
impairment charge. The new guidance is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021. The impact of the new standard will be dependent on the specific facts and circumstances of future individual impairments, if any.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12, “Derivatives and Hedging (ASC 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities,” which amends the hedge accounting recognition and presentation requirements to better align an entity’s risk management activities with its financial reporting. This standard also simplifies the application of hedge accounting in certain situations. The Company adopted this new guidance in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (ASC 842),” which requires lessees to recognize a ROU asset and a lease liability for all leases with terms of more than 12 months. Recognition, measurement and presentation will depend on the classification of a lease as either a finance or an operating lease. ASU 2016-02 also requires expanded disclosures about leasing arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, “Leases (ASC 842), Targeted Improvements,” which provides an optional transition method in applying the new lease standard. ASC 842 can be applied using either a modified retrospective approach at the beginning of the earliest period presented, or, as permitted by ASU 2018-11, at the beginning of the period in which it is adopted. The Company adopted the new standard in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020, on a modified retrospective basis using the optional transition method, and, accordingly, has not restated comparative periods; fiscal year 2019 balances and related disclosures supporting those comparative period balances continue to be presented under ASC 840, “Leases.” As allowed under the new standard, the Company elected to apply the package of practical expedients to not reassess prior conclusions related to contracts containing leases, lease classification and initial direct costs. Upon adoption, the Company recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of Retained earnings of $22 related primarily to the remaining deferred gain from the sale-leaseback of the Company’s general office building in Oakland, California. This new standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statement of earnings or the consolidated statement of cash flows. Refer to Note 11 for more information.